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The aim of this research was to study the improvement of nitrogen titanium dioxide catalysts by doping with iron (Fe-N-TiO2) on degradation performance of reactive red 120 dye under visible light. Fe-N-TiO2 and N-TiO2 catalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method without calcination process. In this work, the catalysts were studied to compare the dye removal efficiency. The catalysts were titanium dioxide with doping 1 percent by weight of iron (1.0%Fe-N-TiO2), without iron doping catalyst (N-TiO2), and commercial catalyst (P25). The physical and chemical properties of catalysts such as crystal structure, crystallite size, morphology, specific surface area, oxidation state of elements, energy band-gap and magnetism value were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), N2-adsorption-desorption, X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRs) and Versalab (VSM), respectively. The results found that N-TiO2 and P25 catalysts were mainly obvious the anatase crystalline phase with small amount of rutile phase. On the other hand, 1.0%Fe-N-TiO2 catalyst was found the decreasing of anatase crystallinity and disappearing of rutile phase. The doping with iron, the smaller anatase crystallite size was observed as about 10-11 nm. The morphology of catalysts prepared by the hydrothermal technique showed nearly spherical shape and nano-size. However, the catalyst with iron doping was obvious in smaller size than that without iron. The specific surface area of the catalysts calculated by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) equation was found that catalyst doping with iron has the highest specific surface area as about 115 m2/g. The oxidation state of iron was indicated in the Fe3+ electronic state. The iron doping (1.0%Fe-N-TiO2 catalyst) can reduce the energy band-gap from 2.94 eV (N-TiO2) to 2.70 eV. Moreover, the magnetism of 1.0%-Fe-N-TiO2 catalyst was about 0.011 emu/gram. The result of the reactive red 120 dye removal in both adsorption and photocatalytic reaction under visible light were found that the efficiency of the 1.0%-Fe-N-TiO2 catalyst was 99% degradation and gave the highest performance as compared with the N-TiO2 and P25 catalysts. It can be concluded that the nitrogen titanium dioxide catalyst modified by iron doping can actually be used to decompose pollutants under visible light.
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