Triclocarban adsorption and biodegradation using biochar and cell-immobilized biochar produced from bamboo and eucalyptus

Main Article Content

สุพิชญา เจนใจวิทย์
นนทิภา สุพรรณไชยมาตย์
Andrew J. Hunt
ยุวรัตน์ เงินเย็น
พงศธร ทวีธนวาณิชย์
สุมนา สิริพัฒนากุล-ราษฎร์ภักดี


This study aims to remove triclocarban (TCC), which is a bactericidal agent contaminating in water, using wasted material from wood vinegar production. The materials were biochars produced from bamboo and eucalyptus. This study emphasized on the use of the biochars as sorbents and cell immobilization materials. Microorganism applied in this study was Pseudomonas fluorescens MC46. The experiment included 1) biochar characterization, 2) TCC removal efficiency and kinetics, 3) microbial growth on biochars, and 4) biochar and cell-immobilized biochar morphology. The results showed that a major element of both biochars was carbon (45-52% by weight) with specific surface areas of 25-27 m2/g. Based on morphological characterization, both biochars were porous materials. For the cell-immobilized biochar, microorganisms spread over the material surface. The biochars and cell-immobilized biochars could remove TCC with similar efficiencies (72-78%) while the free cells degraded 42% of TCC. However, in the long term, cell-immobilized biochars likely provide better overall treatment efficiency because there is toxic contaminant degradation by cell and adsorption by porous materials. The results indicated that biochars from the wasted materials were good sorbents and microbes can be immobilized onto these materials for the biodegradation process. In addition, the biochars could prevent the microbial cells from diminishing TCC exposure. The results of this study can be further used as a guideline for cell-immobilized biochar utilization for the removal of contaminants using combined adsorption and biodegradation processes.

Article Details

บทความวิจัย (Research Article)


1. Wessapan T, Sutthisong S, Somsuk N, Hussaro K, Teekasap S. A Development of Pyrolysis Oven for Wood. EAU Heritage Journal. 2013.
2. Wu Q, Zhang S, Hou B, Zheng H, Deng W, Liu D. Study on the preparation of wood vinegar from biomass residues by carbonization process. Bioresoure Technology . 2015; 179:98–103.
3. Theapparat Y, Chandumpai A, Leelasuphakul W, Laemsak N, Ponglimanont C. Physicochemical characteristics of wood vinegars from carbonization of leucaena leucocephala, azadirachta indica, eucalyptus camaldulensis, hevea brasiliensis and dendrocalamus asper. Kasetsart Journal Natural Science. 2014 ;48(6):916–28.
4. Joseph S, Taylor P. The production and application of biochar in soils. Advances in Biorefineries: Biomass and Waste Supply Chain Exploitation. 2014. 525–555.
5. Ahmad M, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, Zhang M, Bolan N, Mohan D, et al. Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water. Chemosphere. 2014 ;99:19–33.
6. Sizmur T, Quilliam R, Puga AP, Moreno-jiménez E, Beesley L, Gomez-eyles JL. Application of Biochar for Soil Remediation. Agricultural and Environmental Applications of Biochar: Advances and Barriers. 2015 ;98104:1–30.
7. Lian F, Sun B, Song Z, Zhu L, Qi X, Xing B. Physicochemical properties of herb-residue biochar and its sorption to ionizable antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Chemical Enginerring Journal. 2014 ;248:128–34.
8. Ahmad M, Lee SS, Dou X, Mohan D, Sung JK, Yang JE, et al. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water. Bioresoure Technology. 2012 ;118:536–44.
9. Vithanage M, Mayakaduwa SS, Herath I, Ok YS, Mohan D. Kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanistic studies of carbofuran removal using biochars from tea waste and rice husks. Chemosphere. 2016 ;150:781–9.
10. Lou L, Huang Q, Lou Y, Lu J, Hu B, Lin Q. Adsorption and degradation in the removal of nonylphenol from water by cells immobilized on biochar. Chemosphere. 2019 ;228:676–84.
11. Brausch JM, Rand GM. A review of personal care products in the aquatic environment : Environmental concentrations and toxicity. Chemosphere. 2011 ;82(11):1518–32.
12. Craddock HA, Panthi S, Rjoub Y, Lipchin C, Sapkota A, Sapkota AR. Antibiotic and herbicide concentrations in household greywater reuse systems and pond water used for food crop irrigation: West Bank, Palestinian Territories. Science of the Total Environment. 2020 ;699:134205.
13. Vimalkumar K, Arun E, Krishna-Kumar S, Poopal RK, Nikhil NP, Subramanian A, et al. Occurrence of triclocarban and benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in water, sediment, and fish from Indian rivers. Science of the Total Environment . 2018 ;625:1351–60.
14. Ogunyoku TA, Young TM. Removal of Triclocarban and Triclosan during Municipal Biosolid Production. Water Environment Research. 2014 ;86(3):197–203.
15. Lozano N, Torrents A, Rice CP, Ramirez M. Fate of triclosan in agricultural soils after biosolid applications. Chemosphere. 2010 ;78(6):760–6.
16. Xu X, Lu Y, Zhang D, Wang Y, Zhou X, Xu H, et al. Toxic assessment of triclosan and triclocarban on Artemia salina. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2015 ;95(6):728–33.
17. Venkatesan AK, Pycke BFG, Barber LB, Lee KE, Halden RU. Occurrence of triclosan , triclocarban , and its lesser chlorinated congeners in Minnesota freshwater sediments collected near wastewater treatment plants. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2012 ;229–230:29–35.
18. Hinther A, Bromba CM, Wul JE, Helbing CC. Effects of Triclocarban , Triclosan , and Methyl Triclosan on Thyroid Hormone Action and Stress in Frog and Mammalian Culture Systems. Environmental Science and Technology. 2011 ;5395–402.
19. Paull DH. Co-Occurrence of Triclocarban and Triclosan in U . S . Water Resources. 2005 ;39(6):1420–6.
20. Sipahutar MK, Piapukiew J, Vangnai AS. Efficiency of the formulated plant-growth promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens MC46 inoculant on triclocarban treatment in soil and its effect on Vigna radiata growth and soil enzyme activities. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2018 ;344:883–92.
21. Taweetanawanit P, Ratpukdi T, Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi S. Performance and kinetics of triclocarban removal by entrapped Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MC46. Bioresoure Technology. 2019 ;274(September 2018):113–9.
22. Dong Q, Xiong Y. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo. Bioresoure Technology. 2014;171:127–31.
23. Wang H, Wang X, Cui Y, Xue Z, Ba Y. Slow pyrolysis polygeneration of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens): Product yield prediction and biochar formation mechanism. Bioresoure Technology. 2018 ;263:444–9.
24. Supanchaiyamat N, Jetsrisuparb K, Knijnenburg JTN, Tsang DCW, Hunt AJ. Lignin materials for adsorption: Current trend, perspectives and opportunities. Bioresoure Technology. 2019 ;570–81.
25. Guerrero M, Ruiz MP, Millera Á, Alzueta MU, Bilbao R. Characterization of Biomass Chars Formed under Different Devolatilization Conditions : Differences between Rice Husk and Eucalyptus. Energy and fuels. 2008 ;(17):1275–84.
26. Bridgwater A V., Bridge SA. A Review of Biomass Pyrolysis and Pyrolysis Technologies. Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Upgrading and Utilization. 1991;11–92.
27. Li Z, Zhang X, Xiong X, Zhang B, Wang L. Determination of the best conditions for modified biochar immobilized petroleum hydrocarbon degradation microorganism by orthogonal test Determination of the best conditions for modified biochar immobilized petroleum hydrocarbon degradation microorganism. Earth and Environmental Science. 2017.
28. Jia M, Wang F, Bian Y, Jin X, Song Y, Kengara FO, et al. Effects of pH and metal ions on oxytetracycline sorption to maize-straw-derived biochar. Bioresoure Technology. 2013 ;136:87–93.
29. Ho YS. Review of second-order models for adsorption systems. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2006 ;136(3):681–9.
30. Tong Y, Mcnamara PJ, Mayer BK. a review of relevant kinetics , mechanisms. Environmental Science Water Research and Technology. 2019.
31. Taweetawanit P, Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi S. Comparison of Triclocarban Antibiotic Removal by Entrapped Pseudomonas fluorescens. UBU Engineering Journal. 2017; 12(1).
32. Martins AF, Cardoso A de L, Stahl JA, Diniz J. Low temperature conversion of rice husks, eucalyptus sawdust and peach stones for the production of carbon-like adsorbent. Bioresource Technology. 2007;98(5):1095–100.
33. Wang Y, Lu J, Wu J, Liu Q, Zhang H, Jin S. Adsorptive Removal of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Using Bamboo Biochar. Sustainability. 2015;12947–57.
34. Pino NJ, Muñera LM, Peñuela GA. Bioaugmentation with Immobilized Microorganisms to Enhance Phytoremediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil. Soil Sediment Contamination. 2016 ;25(4):419–30.
35. Shen Y, Li H, Zhu W, Ho SH, Yuan W, Chen J, et al. Microalgal-biochar immobilized complex: A novel efficient biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution. Bioresoure Technology. 2017 ;244:1031–8.
36. Suzana C udia SM, Claudia M, a M, Larissa Guedes Fiuacute za MC o, ra T dde S. Immobilization of microbial cells: A promising tool for treatment of toxic pollutants in industrial wastewater. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013; 12(28):4412–8.
37. Wang C, Gu L, Ge S, Liu X, Zhang X, Chen X. Remediation potential of immobilized bacterial consortium with biochar as carrier in pyrene-Cr(VI) co-contaminated soil. Environment Technology. 2018 ;1–9.
38. Aksu Z. Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants, Process Biochemistry. 2005 ;40:997–1026.
39. Ying GG, Yu XY, Kookana RS. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling. Environmental Pollution. 2007 ;150(3):300–5.
40. Laocharoen S, Plangklang P, Reungsang A. Selection of support materials for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in treatment of carbofuran-contaminated water. Environment Technology. 2013 ;34(18):2587–97.
41. Partovinia A, Rasekh B. Technology Review of the immobilized microbial cell systems for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons polluted environments. Environmental science and technology. 2018;3389.