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This study aims to remove triclocarban (TCC), which is a bactericidal agent contaminating in water, using wasted material from wood vinegar production. The materials were biochars produced from bamboo and eucalyptus. This study emphasized on the use of the biochars as sorbents and cell immobilization materials. Microorganism applied in this study was Pseudomonas fluorescens MC46. The experiment included 1) biochar characterization, 2) TCC removal efficiency and kinetics, 3) microbial growth on biochars, and 4) biochar and cell-immobilized biochar morphology. The results showed that a major element of both biochars was carbon (45-52% by weight) with specific surface areas of 25-27 m2/g. Based on morphological characterization, both biochars were porous materials. For the cell-immobilized biochar, microorganisms spread over the material surface. The biochars and cell-immobilized biochars could remove TCC with similar efficiencies (72-78%) while the free cells degraded 42% of TCC. However, in the long term, cell-immobilized biochars likely provide better overall treatment efficiency because there is toxic contaminant degradation by cell and adsorption by porous materials. The results indicated that biochars from the wasted materials were good sorbents and microbes can be immobilized onto these materials for the biodegradation process. In addition, the biochars could prevent the microbial cells from diminishing TCC exposure. The results of this study can be further used as a guideline for cell-immobilized biochar utilization for the removal of contaminants using combined adsorption and biodegradation processes.
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