Main Article Content
The aim of this research is to study torrefaction performance of macadamia shell under dry flue gas conditions. Effect of torrefaction temperature at 200, 250 and 300 °C and duration time of 30, 45 and 60 minutes on the mass yield, energy density, energy yield and hydrophobicity were investigated in this work. According to the results, increasing the temperature and duration time of torrefaction led to decrease in moisture and volatile content, while the fixed carbon and ash were higher under the flue gas conditions (5% oxygen by volume) due to oxidation reaction. The increasing temperature and time also resulted in lower mass yield. Calorific value and energy yield of flue gas torrefaction were improved compared with torrefaction under inert gas conditions (nitrogen gas). Torrefied macadamia shell produced 21.7-30.9 MJ/kg, which higher than of by nitrogen gas (19.5-28.6 MJ/kg). The mass yield and energy yield were in range of 39-74 % and 63.5-90.4 %, respectively. Contact angle of the torrefied fuel with the flue gas was lower than that of nitrogen gas due to the oxidation of tar on the surface of the charcoal in the oxidation reaction. Torrefaction using flue gas reduce fuel costs in thermal pretreatment process compared to the nitrogen. The optimum flue gas torrefaction conditions are 300 °C and 45 min, highest calorific value of 30.9 MJ/kg.
Bui HT, Gagnon C, Audet O, Mathieu J, Leone M. Impact of a resistance training program on ataxia as measured by an innovative computer-based test: 1361 Board 154 May 28, 9: 00 AM-10: 30 AM. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2015;47(5S): 362.
กรมศุลกากร. เข้าถึงได้จาก: http://www.customs.go.th/statistic_report.php?show_search=1 [เข้าถึงเมื่อ วันที่ 27 ก.พ. 2564].
Mahantadsanaoing N, Ngernyen Y. Torrefaction of pelletizing fuel from solid waste of sugar industry. Khon Kaen University Research Journal. 2020;20(1): 65-75.
Bridgeman TG, Jones JM, Shield I, Williams PT. Torrefaction of reed canary grass, wheat straw and willow to enhance solid fuel qualities and combustion properties. Fuel. 2008;87(6): 844-856.
Uemura Y, Omar W, Othman NA, Yusup S, Tsutsui T. Torrefaction of oil palm EFB in the presence of oxygen. Fuel. 2013;103: 156-160.
Onsree T, Tippayawong N, Williams T, Mccullough K, Barrow E, Pogaku R, Lauterbach J. Torrefaction of pelletized corn residues with wet flue gas. Bioresource technology. 2019;285: 121330.
Poudel J, Karki S, Oh SC. Valorization of waste wood as a solid fuel by torrefaction. Energies. 2018;11(7): 1641.
Chen WH, Lu KM, Lee WJ, Liu SH, Lin TC. Non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction characterization and SEM observations of fibrous and ligneous biomass. Applied Energy. 2014;114: 104-113.
Nhuchhen DR. Prediction of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen compositions of raw and torrefied biomass using proximate analysis. Fuel. 2016;180, 348-356.
Mei Y, Liu R, Yang Q, Yang H, Shao J, Draper C, Chen H. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas. Bioresource Technology. 2015;177: 355-360.
Shankar Tumuluru J, Sokhansanj S, Hess JR, Wright CT, Boardman RD. A review on biomass torrefaction process and product properties for energy applications. Industrial Biotechnology. 2011;7(5): 384-401.
Pattiya A. Fast pyrolysis. Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction for Energy Applications. Woodhead Publishing. 2018:3-28.
Prins MJ, Ptasinski KJ, Janssen FJ. Torrefaction of wood: Part 1. Weight loss kinetics. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2006;77(1): 28-34.
Li MF, Li X, Bian J, Xu JK, Yang S, Sun RC. Influence of temperature on bamboo torrefaction under carbon dioxide atmosphere. Industrial Crops and Products. 2015;76: 149-157.
Zhang C, Wang C, Cao G, Chen WH, Ho SH. Comparison and characterization of property variation of microalgal biomass with non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction. Fuel. 2019;246: 375-385.
Chen WH, Lin BJ, Colin B, Chang JS, Pétrissans A, Bi X, Pétrissans M. Hygroscopic transformation of woody biomass torrefaction for carbon storage. Applied Energy. 2018;231: 768-776.