The Physicochemical Factors and Litter Dynamics (Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and Rhizophora stylosa Griff) of Replanted Mangroves, Rembang, Central Java, Indonesia DOI: 10.32526/ennrj.17.4.2019.27

Main Article Content

Dafit Ariyanto
Dietriech G Bengen
Tri Prartono
Yusli Wardiatno


Mangroves are a coastal habitat which contributes to the presence of biota through the litter they produce. The objective of the present study was to determine the physicochemical factors that influenced the dynamics of Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora stylosa mangrove litter on the Banggi Coast, Rembang, Central Java. The litter research used the 1 × 1 m method between September 2016 and August 2017. The results revealed that the factors influencing the litter dynamics were the sediment’s organic matter and the salinity and substrate condition. Organic matter content is high relationship physicochemical factor which influences mangrove productivity.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ariyanto, D., G Bengen, D., Prartono, T., & Wardiatno, Y. (2019). The Physicochemical Factors and Litter Dynamics (Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and Rhizophora stylosa Griff) of Replanted Mangroves, Rembang, Central Java, Indonesia: DOI: 10.32526/ennrj.17.4.2019.27. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 17(4), 11–19. Retrieved from
Original Research Articles


1. Agraz HCM, Chan KCA, Iriarte-Vivar SI, Posada Vanegas G, Vega Serratos BE, Osti Sáenz YJ. Phenological variation of Rhizophora mangle and ground water chemistry associated to changes of the precipitation. Hidrobiológica 2015;25(1):49-61.

2. Ake-Castillo JA, Vazquez G, Lopez-Portillo J. Litterfall and decomposition of Rhizophora mangle L. in a coastal lagoonin the southern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrobiologia 2006;559:101-11.

3. Alongi D. Impact of global change on nutrient dynamics in mangrove forests. Forests 2018;9(596):1-13.

4. Ariyanto D, Bengen DG, Prartono T, Wardiatno Y. Short Communication: The relationship between content of particular metabolites of fallen mangrove leaves and the rate at which the leaves decompose over time. Biodiversitas 2018a;19:700-5.

5. Ariyanto D, Bengen DG, Prartono T, Wardiatno Y. Productivity and CNP availability in Rhizophora apiculata Blume and Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. at Banggi Coast, Central Java-Indonesia. AES Bioflux 2018b;10(3):137-6.

6. Ariyanto D, Bengen DG, Prartono T, Wardiatno Y. The association of Cassidula nucleus (Gmelin 1791) and Cassidula angulifera (Petit 1841) with mangrove in Banggi Coast, Central Java, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux 2018c;11(2):348-61.

7. Ariyanto D, Bengen DG, Prartono T, Wardiatno Y. Distribution of Batillaria Zonalis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) on Avicennia Marina (Forsk.) Vierh in The Coast of Banggi, Rembang, Central Java Omni-Akuatika 2018d;14(3):10-7.

8. Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Kairo JG, Kazungu J, Dehairs F, Koedam N. Litter degradation and CN dynamics in reforested mangrove plantations at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Biological Conservation 2005;126:287-95.

9. Carugati L, Gatto B, Rastelli E, Lo Martire M, Coral C, Greco S, Danovaro R. Impact of mangrove forests degradation on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Scientific Reports 2018;8(1):1-10

10. Clarke PJ. Baseline studies of temperate mangrove growth and reproduction; demographic and litterfall measures of leafing and flowering. Australian Journal of Botany 1994;42:37-48.

11. Dai Z, Trettin CC, Frolking S, Birdsey RA. Mangrove carbon assessment tool: Model development and sensitivity analysis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2018;208:23-35.

12. Donato D, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso D, Kurnianto S, Stidham M, Kanninen M. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geoscience 2011;4:293-7.

13. Duke NC, Bunt JS, Williams WT. Mangrove litter fall in north-east Australia. Annual totals by component in selected species. Australian Journal of Botany 1981;29:547-53.

14. Duke NC. Phenological trends with latitude in the mangrove tree Avicennia marina. Journal of Ecology 1990;78: 113-33.

15. Ellison AM. Mangrove restoration: do we know enough? Restoration Ecology 2000;8:219-29.

16. Flindt MR, Pardal MA, Lillebø AI, Martins I, Marques JC. Nutrient cycling and plant dynamics in estuaries: A brief review. Acta Oecologica 1999;20:237-48.

17. Gao Y, Zhou J, Wang L, Guo J, Feng J, Wu H, Lin G. Distribution patterns and controlling factors for the soil organic carbon in four mangrove forests of China. Global Ecology and Conservation 2019;17:1-14

18. Gulayan SE, Aaron-Amper J, handugan EDB. Mangrove Rehabilitation Using Rhizophora sp. in Northeastern Bohol, Philippines. IJERD-International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development 2015;(6-1):63-8

19. Jacotot A, Marchand C, Allenbach M. Biofilm and temperature controls on greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) emissions from a Rhizophora mangrove soil (New Caledonia). Science of The Total Environment 2019;650:1019-28.

20. Jayatissa LP, Wickramasinghe WAADL, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Huxham M. Interspecific variation in response of mangrove seedlings to two contrasting salinities. International Review of Hydrobiology 2008;93:700-10.

21. Kamruzzaman M, Sharma S, Kamara M, Hagihara A. Phenological traits of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa Griff. at the northern limit of its biogeographical distribution. Wetlands Ecology Management 2013;21:277-88.

22. Kamruzzaman M, Kamara M, Sharma S, Hagihara A. Stand structure, phenology and litterfall dynamics of a subtropical Mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Journal of Forest Reserch 2016;27:513-23.

23. Kamruzzaman M, Osawa A, Deshar R, Sharma S, Mouctar K. Species composition, biomass, and net primary productivity of mangrove forest in Okukubi River, Okinawa Island, Japan. Regional Studies in Marine Science 2017a;12:19-27.

24. Kamruzzaman M, Ahmed S, Osawa A. Biomass and net primary productivity of mangrove communities along the Oligohaline zone of Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Forest Ecosystems 2017b;4(1):11-9.

25. Kamruzzaman M, Mouctar K, Sharma S, Osawa A. Comparison of biomass and net primary productivity among three species in a subtropical mangrove forest at Manko Wetland, Okinawa, Japan. Regional Studies in Marine Science 2019;25:1-7.

26. Keuskamp JA, Hefting MM, Dingemans BJJ, Verhoeven JTA, Feller IC. Effects of nutrient enrichment on mangrove leaf litter decomposition. Science of the Total Environment 2015;508:402-10.

27. Kodikara KAS, Mukherjee N, Jayatissa LP, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. Have mangrove restoration projects worked? An in-depth study in Sri Lanka. Restoration Ecology 2017;25(5):705-16.

28. Komiyama A, Ong JE, Poungparn S. Allometry, biomass and productivity of mangrove forests: A review. Aquatic Botany 2008;89:128-37.

29. Krishna MP, Mohan M. Litter decomposition in forest ecosystems: A review. Energy, Ecology and Environment 2017;2(4):236-49.

30. Lee SY, Primavera JH, Dahdouh-Guebas F, McKee K, Bosire JO, Cannicci S, Diele K, Fromard F, Koedam N, Marchand C, Mendelssohn I, Mukherjee N, Record, S. Ecological role and services of tropical mangrove ecosystems: A reassessment. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2014;23(7):726-43.

31. Mchenga M, Chirwa GC, Chiwaula LS. Impoverishing effects of catastrophic health expenditures in Malawi. International Journal for Equity in Health 2017; 16(25),1-8.

32. Mchenga ISS, Ali AI. Mangrove litter production and seasonality of dominant species in Zanzibar, Tanzania Journal of East African Natural History 2017;106(1): 5-18.

33. Medina E, Fernandez W, Barboza F. Element uptake, accumulation, and resorption in leaves of mangrove species with different mechanisms of salt regulation. Web Ecology 2015;15(1):3-13.

34. Morrisey D, Beard C, Morrison M, Craggs R, Lowe M. The New Zealand Mangrove: Review of the Current State of Knowledge. New Zealand, Auckland Regional Council Technical Publication 2007. p.1-128.

35. Nagelkerken I, Blaber SJM, Bouillon S, Green P, Haywood M, Kirton LG,Meynecke JO, Pawlik J, Penrose HM, Sasekumar A, Somerfield PJ. The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: A review. Aquatic Botany 2008;89,155-85.

36. Nehemia A, Chen M, Kochzius M, Dehairs F, Brion N. Ecological impact of salt farming in mangroves on the habitat and food sources of Austruca occidentalis and Littoraria subvittata. Journal of Sea Research 2019;146: 24-32.

37. Ntyam SCO, Armah AK, Ajonina GN, George W, Adomako JK, Elvis N, Obiang BO. Importance of mangrove litter production in the protection of atlantic coastal forest of Cameroon and Ghana. The Land/Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone of West and Central Africa 2014; p 123-37

38. Pansu M, Jacques G. Handbook of Soil Analysis Mineralogical, Organic, and Inorganic Methods. Berlin;Verlag. Springer 2003. p 1-993
39. Rafael A, Calumpong HP. Comparison of litter production between natural and reforested mangrove areas in Central Philippines. AACL Bioflux 2018;11(4):1399-414.

40. Ragavan P, Saxena A, Jayaraj RSC, Mohan PM, Ravichandran K, Saravanan S, Vijayaraghavan A. A review of the mangrove floristics of India. Taiwania 2016;61(3):224-42.

41. Ragavan P, Saxena M, Coomar T, Saxena A Preliminary study on natural hybrids ofgenus Rhizophora in India. ISME/ GLOMIS Electronic Journal 2011;9:13-9.

42. Rani V, Sreelekshmi S, Preethy CM, BijoyNandan S. Phenology and litterfall dynamics structuring Ecosystem productivity in a tropical mangrove stand on South West coast of India. Regional Studies in Marine Science 2016;8:400-7.

43. Reef R, Lovelock CE. Regulation of water balance in mangroves. Annals of Botany 2015;115:385-95

44. Sanchez-Andres R, Sanchez-Carrillo S, Alatorre LC, Cirujano S, Alvarez-Cobelas, M. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient decomposition of arid mangroves in the Gulf of California: their role sustaining ecosystem heterotrophy. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 2010;89:191-9.

45. Steinke TD. Ward CJ. Litter production by mangroves. III. Wavecrest, Transkei, South Africa, with predictions for other Transkei estuaries. South African Journal of Botany 1990;56:514-19.

46. Sukardjo S. Litter production of the mangrove forests in Tiris, Indramayu, West Java, Indonesia. Marine Research in Indonesia 2010;35(1):21-33.

47. Thilagavathi B, Varadharajan D, Babu A, Manoharan J, Vijayalakshmi S, Balasubramanian T. Distribution and diversity of macrobenthos in different mangrove ecosystems of Tamil Nadu Coast, India. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development 2013;4(6):1-12.

48. Wang’ondu VW, Bosire JO, Kairo JG, Kinyamario JI, Mwaura FB, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. Litter fall dynamics of restored mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Sonneratia alba Sm.) in Kenya. Restoration Ecology 2014;22(6):824-31.

49. Ward RD, Friess DA, Day RH, Mackenzie RA. Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: A region by region overview. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 2016;2(4):1-25.

50. Wafar S, Untawale AG, Wafar M. Litter fall and energy flux in a mangrove ecosystem. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 1997;44:111-24.

51. Zalamea M, Gonzalez G. Leaffall phenology in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico: From species to community patterns. Biotropica 2008;40:295-304.