Green Approach for Decolorization and Detoxification of Textile Dye- CI Direct Blue 201 Using Native Bacterial Strains DOI: 10.32526/ennrj.18.1.2020.01

Main Article Content

Ekanayake EMMS
Pathmalal M. Manage


One hundred and fifty six native bacterial strains with different morphological characters were isolated from water and soil samples collected from textile wastewater effluent sites, Sri Lanka. Three isolated bacterial strains were more effective on decolorization of CI Direct Blue 201 textile dye and 16s rRNA analysis reveals that the bacterial strains were Alcaligenes faecalis (MK166784), Micrococcus luteus (MK166783) and Staphylococcus warneri (MK256311). A. faecalis, M. luteus and S. warneri showed complete decolorization of CI Direct Blue 201 textile dye within 60, 64, and 72 h of incubation time respectively under the static conditions at 28 oC. Decolorization was effective at a temperature range from 24 oC to 40 oC and pH range from 7 to 9. The presence of tryptone, peptone or yeast in the Mineral Salt Medium enhanced the decolorization of the dye. Phytotoxicity assay based on the seed germination percentages of Oryza sativa and Vigna radiate showed that the detoxification of CI Direct Blue 201 textile dye after the bacterial treatment was effective signifying the potential applicability of the A. faecalis, M. luteus and S. warneri to develop a green application to treat textile wastewater.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
EMMS, E., & M. Manage, P. (2019). Green Approach for Decolorization and Detoxification of Textile Dye- CI Direct Blue 201 Using Native Bacterial Strains: DOI: 10.32526/ennrj.18.1.2020.01. nvironment and atural esources ournal, 18(1), 1-8. etrieved from
Original Research Articles


1. Anandhana M, Prabhahar RSS, Thanikachalamc J, Arunrajd T. Evaluation of phycoremediation potentials of microalgae with reference to textile dyeing industrial effluent. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research 2018;13(8):6440-5.

2. Asad S, Amoozegar MA, Pourbabaee A, Sarbolouki MN, Dastgheib SMM. Decolorization of textile azo dyes by newly isolated halophilic and halotolerant bacteria. Bioresource Technology 2007;98(11):2082-8.

3. Bechtold T, Mussak R. Colours in civilizations of the world and natural colorants history under tension. In: Bechtold T, Mussak R. editors. Handbook of Natural Colorants. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons; 2009. p. 21-7.

4. Board of Investment of Sri Lanka (BOI). Environmental Norms: Textile Wastewater Effluent Guide Lines. Sri Lanka: Board of Investment of Sri Lanka; 2011.

5. Chemical Book. CI direct blue 201 basic information [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2019 March 6]. Available from:

6. Chen H, Hopper SL, Cerniglia CE. Biochemical and molecular characterization of an azoreductase from Staphylococcus aureus, a tetrameric NADPH-dependent flavorprotein. Microbiology 2005;151(5): 1433-41.

7. Ekanayake EMMS, Manage PM. Decolorization of textile dye (Cl Direct Blue 201) by selected aquatic plants. Proceeding of the 2nd Environmental and Natural Resources International Conference; 2016 Nov 13-14; Bangkok: Thailand; 2016.

8. Ekanayake EMMS, Pathmalal MM. Decolorization of CI Direct Blue 201 textile dye by native bacteria. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 2017;4(1):49-58.

9. Ekanayake EMMS, Udayanga D, Jayawardana DT, Manage PM. Effectiveness of Aspergillus aculeatus on decolorisation of mixture of two different textile dye classes. Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium; 2018 Nov 23-24; Citrus Hotel, Colombo: Sri Lanka; 2018.

10. Gupta VK, Carrott PJM, Ribeiro Carrott, MML. Low-cost adsorbents: Growing approach to wastewater treatment: a review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 2009;39(10):783-842.

11. Gupta VK, Jain R, Mittal A, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agarwal S, Sikarwar S. Photo-catalytic degradation of toxic dye amaranth on TiO2/UV in aqueous suspensions. Materials Science and Engineering 2012;32(1):12-7.

12. Guruge KS, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Manage PM. Occurrence of perfluorinated acids and fluorotelomers in waters from Sri Lanka. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2007;54(10):1667-72.

13. Hassan MM, Alam MZ, Anwar MN. Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by bacteria isolated from dyeing industry effluent. International Research Journal of Biological Science 2013;2(8):27-31.

14. Hunger K. Dye classes for principal applications. In: Hunger K. editor. Industrial Dyes: Chemistry, Properties, Applications. 1st ed. Frankfurt, Germany: Wiley-VCH; 2003. p. 158-78.

15. Idroos FS, Manage PM. Biodegradation of microcystins by Bacillus cereus and Rahnella aquatilis isolated from freshwater bodies. Asian Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 2018; 20(3):24-32.

16. Ileperuma OA. Environmental pollution in Sri Lanka: A review. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka 2000;28(4):301-25.

17. Jadhav JP, Kalyani DC, Telke AA, Phugare SS, Govindwar SP. Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterial consortium for the removal of color, reduction of heavy metals, and toxicity from textile dye effluent. Bioresource Technology 2010;101(1):165-73.

18. Jadhav UU, Dawkar VV, Ghodake GS, Govindwar SP. Biodegradation of direct red 5B, a textile dye by newly isolated Comamonas sp. UVS. Journal of Hazardous Matererials 2008;158:507-16.

19. Kalyani DC, Patil PS, Jadhav JP, Govindwar SP. Biodegradation of reactive textile dye Red BLI by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. Bioresource Technology 2008; 99(11):4635-41.

20. Konsowa AH. Decolorization of wastewater containing direct dye by ozonation in a batch bubble column reactor. Desalination 2003;158(1-3):233-40.

21. Liyanage GY, Manage PM. Evaluation of Amoxicillin and Sulfonamide removal by Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter ludwigii and Enterobacter sp. Journal of Environment and Natural Resources 2016;14(1):39-43.

22. Mahagamage MGYL, Chinthaka SDM, Manage PM. Multivariate analysis of physico-chemical and microbial parameters of surface water in Kelani river basin. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 2015;1(1):55-61

23. Mahagamage MGYL, Manage PM. Water quality index (CCME-WQI) based assessment study of water quality in Kelani river basin, Sri Lanka. Proceeding of the 1st Environment and Natural Resources International Conference; 2014 Nov 6-7; the Sukosol hotel, Bangkok: Thailand; 2014.

24. Manage PM, Edwards C, Singh BK, Lawton LA. Isolation and identification of novel microcystin-degrading bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2009;75(21):6924-8.

25. Manage PM, Kawabata ZI, Nakano SI. Algicidal effect of the bacterium Alcaligenes denitrificans on Microcystis spp. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 2000;22(2):111-7.

26. Moosvi S, Kher X, Madamwar D. Isolation, characterization and decolorization of textile dyes by a mixed bacterial consortium JW-2. Dyes and Pigments 2007;74(3):723-9.

27. Naresh B, Preethi C, Sneha S, Bhagyashree R, Parizad P. Microbial decolorization of disperse textile dye brown 21 by Enterobacter gergoviae isolated from textile effluent. International Research Journal of Environmental Science 2013;2:31-36.

28. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville pike Bethesda MD, 20894 USA [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 21]. Available from:

29. Padmavathy V, Vasudevan P, Dhingra SC. Biosorption of nickel (II) ions on baker's yeast. Process Biochemistry 2003; 38(10):1389-95.

30. Pearce CI, Lloyd JR, Guthrie JT. The removal of colour from textile wastewater using whole bacterial cells: A review. Dyes and Pigments 2003;58(3):179-96.

31. Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P. Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: A critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresource Biotechnology 2001;77(3):247-55.

32. Rovira J, Domingo JL. Human health risks due to exposure to inorganic and organic chemicals from textiles: A review. Environmental Research 2018;168:62-9.

33. Saratale RG, Saratale GD, Chang JS, Govindwar SP. Decolorization and biodegradation of textile dye navy blue HER by Trichosporon beigelii NCIM-3326. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2009;166(2):1421-8.

34. Saratale RG, Saratale GD, Chang JS, Govindwar SP. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium. Biodegradation 2010;21(6):999-1015.

35. Senan RC, Abraham TE. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium aerobic degradation of selected azo dyes by bacterial consortium. Biodegradation 2004;15(4): 275-80.

36. Shah PD, Dave SR, Rao MS. Enzymatic degradation of textile dye Reactive Orange 13 by newly isolated bacterial strain Alcaligenes faecalis PMS-1. International Journal of Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2012;69:41-50.

37. Shore BW. The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation, 2 Volume Set. 1st ed. Wiley-VCH: 1996.

38. Somasiri W, Ruan W, Li X, Jian C. Biological decolourization of simulated textile wastewater in UASB reactor system by anaerobic granular sludge. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension 2005;8:53-64.

39. Wijetunga S, Xiufen L, Wenquan R, Chen J. Removal mechanisms of acid dyes of different chemical groups under anaerobic mixed culture. Ruhuna Journal of Science 2007;2(1):96-110.