Evaluating Ecological Risk Associated with Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soil in Dong Thap Province, Vietnam 10.32526/ennrj/20/202200114

Main Article Content

Nguyen Thanh Giao
Huynh Thi Hong Nhien
Phan Kim Anh

Abstract

Heavy metal pollution in soil has received more attention in recent years because of an increase in human activities and its potential effects on ecology and human health. This study assessed the occurrence of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd) in different cultivated land and their ecological risk in Dong Thap Province, Vietnam. Seventeen samples collected in paddy, vegetable, perennials, and ornamental soils were measured for heavy metal concentrations and soil structure. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), Nemerow pollution index (PIN), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI), and potential ecological risk index (RI). The results revealed that the soil structure was clay loam and silt clay loam. Heavy metal concentrations were within the national limits with the order of Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cd. Pearson correlation and PCA indicated that heavy metals were strongly correlated, and agriculture and soil formation were responsible for their presence in soil. The sampling sites were divided into four groups using CA, in which paddy and crop soils had the highest content of heavy metals. Based on PIN values (0.82-2.92), the heavy metal pollution ranged from warning to moderate level. As had the highest accumulation potential in the soil, with the Igeo values ranging from 0.12-2.05. The risk of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil to ecology was low to moderate. Despite that, it is recommended to annually monitor the occurrence of heavy metals in agricultural soils to have proper solutions to protect public health.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Giao, N. T. ., Nhien, H. T. H., & Anh, P. K. . (2022). Evaluating Ecological Risk Associated with Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soil in Dong Thap Province, Vietnam: 10.32526/ennrj/20/202200114. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 20(6), 585–597. Retrieved from https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/247244
Section
Original Research Articles

References

Aboubakar A, Douaik A, Mewouo YCM, Madong RCBA, Dahchour A, El Hajjaji S. Determination of background values and assessment of pollution and ecological risk of heavy metals in urban agricultural soils of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Journal of Soils and Sediments 2021;21:1437-54.

Apostol M, Hlihor RM, Daraban GM, Zaleschi LH, Simion IM. Heavy metal pollution in the environment and their effects to ornamental plants. Proceedings of the 2021 International Conference on e-Health and Bioengineering (EHB); 2021 Nov 18-19; Manhattan, New York: United States; 2021.

Cai L, Xu Z, Ren M, Guo Q, Hu X, Hu G, et al. Source identification of eight hazardous heavy metals in agricultural soils of Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2012;78:2-8.

Cai LM, Jiang HH, Luo J. Metals in soils from a typical rapidly developing county, Southern China: levels, distribution, and source apportionment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2019;26:19282-93.

Cravotta CA, Brady KBC. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Applied Geochemistry 2015;62:108-30.

Cui X, Geng Y, Sun R, Xie M, Feng X, Li X, et al. Distribution, speciation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in Jinan Iron and Steel Group soils from China. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021;295:Article No. 126504.

Department of Natural Resources and Environment of Dong Thap province (DoNRE). Report on Environmental Status of Dong Thap Province in 5 Years, Period 2016-2020. Dong Thap, Vietnam: DoNRE; 2021. (in Vietnamese).

Duffus JH. “Heavy metals” a meaningless term? (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry 2002;74:793-807.

Fan W, Zhou J, Zhou Y, Wang S, Du J, Chen Y, et al. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment of agricultural land in the Southern Margin of Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, China. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2019;31:835-47.

Fei X, Lou Z, Xiao R, Ren Z, Lv X. Source analysis and source-oriented risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of different cultivated land qualities. Journal of Cleaner Production 2022;341:Article No. 130942.

Fergusson JE. The Heavy Elements: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 1990.

Ferreira SL, da Silva Junior JB, dos Santos IF, de Oliveira OM, Cerda V, Queiroz AF. Use of pollution indices and ecological risk in the assessment of contamination from chemical elements in soils and sediments-Practical aspects. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry 2022;35:e00169.

General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Land use by province (As of 31 December 2018) by Cities, provinces and land use [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2022 May 10]. Available from: https://www.gso.gov.vn/px-web-2/?pxid=V0103&theme=%C4%90%C6%A1n%20v%E1%BB%8B%20h%C3%A0nh%20ch%C3%ADnh%2C%20%C4%91%E1%BA%A5t%20%C4%91ai%20v%C3%A0%20kh%C3%AD%20h%E1%BA%ADu. (in Vietnamese).

Guan Q, Zhao R, Pan N, Wang F, Yang Y, Luo H. Source apportionment of heavy metals in farmland soil of Wuwei, China: Comparison of three receptor models. Journal of Cleaner Production 2019;237:Article No. 117792.

Ha NN, Phuong NP, Anh NM. Assessment of current soil quality and the accumulation of heavy metals and nitrate in cultivated vegetables in Yen Nghia, Ha Dong, Hanoi. VNU Journal of Science: Earth and Environmental Sciences 2016;32:118-24. (in Vietnamese).

Hakanson L. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control: A sedimentological approach. Water Research 1980;14:975-1001.

Huan NH, Hai NX, Viet NQ, Anh NTP. Assessment of pollution index of Cu, Cd, and Pb in soil environment in the intensive cultivation areas of vegetables, flower in Tay Tuu ward, Bac Tu Liem District, Hanoi. VNU Journal of Science: Earth and Environmental Sciences 2017;33:179-84.

Huang Y, Lan Y, Thomson SJ, Fang A, Hoffmann WC, Lacey RE. Development of soft computing and applications in agricultural and biological engineering. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 2010;71:107-27.

Hung PQ, Thom TTH. Assessment of soil properties and contamination soil in Nhue River Basin in Duy Tien District, Ha Nam Province. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2016;14:1741-52. (in Vietnamese).

Huynh NTH, Le DMT, Giao NT. Ecological risk assessment for occurrence of toxic elements in various land use types in Vietnamese Mekong Delta Province. Journal of Ecological Engineering 2022;23:121-30.

Jiang HH, Cai LM, Wen HH, Hu GC, Chen LG, Luo J. An integrated approach to quantifying ecological and human health risks from different sources of soil heavy metals. Science of the Total Environment 2020;701:Article No. 134466.

Kabata-Pendias A. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. Florida, USA: CRC Press; 2010.

Kang Z, Wang S, Qin J, Wu R, Li H. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in paddy fields of Fujian Province, China. Scientific Reports 2020;10:1-10.

Klinsawathom T, Songsakunrungrueng B, Pattanamahakul P. Heavy metal concentration and risk assessment of soil and rice in and around an open dumpsite in Thailand. EnvironmentAsia 2017;10:53-64.

Kowalska JB, Mazurek R, Gąsiorek M, Zaleski T. Pollution indices as useful tools for the comprehensive evaluation of the degree of soil contamination: A review. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 2018;40:2395-420.

Li Y, Ye F, Wang A, Wang D, Yang B, Zheng Q, et al. Chronic arsenic poisoning probably caused by arsenic-based pesticides: findings from an investigation study of a household. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2016;13:Article No. 133.

Liu L, Wu Q, Miao X, Fan T, Meng Z, Chen X, et al. Study on toxicity effects of environmental pollutants based on metabolomics: A review. Chemosphere 2022;286:Article No. 131815.

Lou X, Wu C, Lin Y, Li W, Deng M, Tan J, et al. Soil heavy metal pollution from Pb/Zn smelting regions in China and the remediation potential of biomineralization. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2022;125:662-77.

Mamut A, Eziz M, Mohammad A. Pollution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in farmland soils in Yanqi County, Xinjiang, Northwest China. Eurasian Soil Science 2018;51: 985-93.

Marrugo-Negrete J, Pinedo-Hernández J, Díez S. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, spatial distribution and origin in agricultural soils along the Sinú River Basin, Colombia. Environmental Research 2017;54:380-8.

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MoNRE). National Technical Regulation on the Allowable Limits of Heavy Metals in the Soils: QCVN 03-MT:2015/BTNMT. Hanoi, Vietnam: MoNRE; 2015. (in Vietnamese).

Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam (MOST). Soil Quality - Determination of Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Nickel and Zinc in Aqua Region Extracts of Soil - Flame and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Methods (TCVN 6496:2009). Hanoi, Vietnam: Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam; 2009. (in Vietnamese).

Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam (MOST). Soil Quality - Sampling - General Requirements (TCVN 5297:1995). Hanoi, Vietnam: Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam; 1995. (in Vietnamese).

Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam (MOST). Soil Quality - Sampling - Part 2: Guidance on Sampling Techniques (TCVN 7538-2:2005). Hanoi, Vietnam: Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam; 2005. (in Vietnamese).

Nazzal Y, Bărbulescu A, Howari F, Al-Taani AA, Iqbal J, Xavier CM, et al. Assessment of metals concentrations in soils of Abu Dhabi emirate using pollution indices and multivariate statistics. Toxics 2021;9:Article No. 95.

Nguyen TP, Ruppert H, Pasold T, Sauer B. Paddy soil geochemistry, uptake of trace elements by rice grains (Oryza sativa) and resulting health risks in the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 2020;42: 2377-97.

Pan L, Ma J, Hu Y, Su B, Fang G, Wang Y, et al. Assessments of levels, potential ecological risk, and human health risk of heavy metals in the soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2016;23:19330-40.

Qishlaqi A, Moore F. Statistical analysis of accumulation and sources of heavy metals occurrence in agricultural soils of Khoshk River Banks, Shiraz, Iran. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 2007;2:565-73.

Ramdani S, Amar A, Belhsaien K, El Hajjaji S, Ghalem S, Zouahri A, et al. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and ecological risk of roadside soils in Tlemcen (Algeria) using flame-atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytical Letters 2018;51:2468-87.

Rashed ARA. The environmental impacts of kabd landfill on the soil and groundwater in Kuwait: A case study. International Journal of Geosciences 2018;9:255-71.

Ren Z, Xiao R, Zhang Z, Lv X, Fei X. Risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in agricultural soil: A case study in the coastal city of Zhejiang Province, China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 2019;33:2109-18.

Rostami S, Kamani H, Shahsavani S, Hoseini M. Environmental monitoring and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in farmland soils. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 2021;27:392-404.

Soil Survey Staff. Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System for Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. 2nd ed. Washington DC, USA: USDA Handbook; 1999.

Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ. Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. In: Luch A, editor. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology. Switzerland: Springer; 2012. p. 133-64.

Thu TTM, Tuan TA, Tien TM. Investigation of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils in Bac Ninh Province. Journal off Vietnam Agricultural Science and Technology 2018;8:102-7. (in Vietnamese).

Wang Y, Chen F, Zhang M, Chen S, Tan X, Liu M, et al. The effects of the reverse seasonal flooding on soil texture within the hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges reservoir, China. Journal Soils Sediments 2018;18:109-15.

Wei B, Yang L. A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchemical Journal 2010;94:99-107.

Wu Y, Li X, Yu L, Wang T, Wang T, Liu T. Review of soil heavy metal pollution in China: Spatial distribution, primary sources, and remediation alternatives. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2022;181:Article No. 106261.

Yang P, Yang M, Mao R, Shao H. Multivariate-statistical assessment of heavy metals for agricultural soils in northern China. The Scientific World Journal 2014;2014:1-7.

Zhang J, Wang Y, Liu J, Liu Q, Zhou Q. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the sources and spatial distribution of heavy metals in agricultural soil in Gongzhuling, Northeast China. Journal of Soils and Sediments 2016;16:634-44.

Zhu G, Guo Q, Xiao H, Chen T, Yang J. Multivariate statistical and lead isotopic analyses approach to identify heavy metal sources in topsoil from the industrial zone of Beijing Capital Iron and Steel Factory. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2017;24:14877-88.