A Framework of Blockchain Smart Contract for Sustainable Agri-Food Supply Chain

Main Article Content

Punnry Kang
Nakorn Indra-Payoong


Along with the advancement of a decentralized distributing system like Blockchain, the smart contract has become a crucial ally in redefining the future of our society. One such excellent application of Blockchain is in the Agri-Food Supply Chain (AFSC), where despite the rise of technological modernization, is still plagued with unfair trading practices, unsustainable conducts, and abuses of power. This paper aims to discover and conceptualize a blockchain smart contract platform to support a fair and sustainable agri-food supply chain. Firstly, the paper presents an insight into present-day AFSC and the lack of focus on fairness for food producers. Next, a novel workflow based on blockchain smart contract is presented, along with a focus on food producer, distributor, and end customer. Smart contracts are formed using smart contract functions and messaging capabilities that are used to automate most business processes using if-this-then-that logic. In essence, this platform has the potential to revolutionize the whole food supply chain by increasing efficiency, decreasing cost, strengthening collaboration, saving time, and much more.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kang, P., & Indra-Payoong, N. (2021). A Framework of Blockchain Smart Contract for Sustainable Agri-Food Supply Chain. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (ISJET), 5(2), 1–14. Retrieved from https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/isjet/article/view/242212
Research Article


R. Segal and M. Le Nguyet. (2020, Sep 10). Unfair Harvest: The State of Rice in Asia. [Online]. Available: shorturl.at/lxzGV

Special Eurobarometer. (2020, Sep 10). Risk Issues. [Online]. Available: https://gmo.kormany.hu/accessibility


P. Kang and N. Indra-Payoong, “A Framework of Blockchain Smart Contract in Fair Trade Agriculture,” in Proc. PIM 9th National and 2nd International Conference, 2019, pp. A1-A16.

M. Swan. (2015, Feb 24). Blockchain: Blueprint for a New economy. [Online]. Available: https://dl.acm.org/


J. Mark. (2020, Sep 10). Workers on Organic Farms are Treated as Poorly as their Conventional Counterparts. [Online]. Available: https://grist.org/article/mark/

E. Polack, L. Cotula, E. Blackmore et. al., (2020, Sep 10). Agricultural Investments in Southeast Asia: Legal Tools for Public Accountability. [Online]. Available: https://pubs.iied.org//sites/default/files/pdfs/migrate/12573


M. Mazoyer. (2020, Sep 20). Protecting Small Farmers and the Rural Poor in the Context of Globalization. [Online]. Available: https://www.social-exclusion-housing.com/poverty/poverty-farming.pdf

S. Pouliot and D. A. Sumner, “Traceability, Liability, and Incentives for Food Safety and Quality,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 15-27, Feb. 2008.

F. H. J. Bunte. (2020, Sep 20). Pricing and Performance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. [Online]. Available: https: www.researchchagate.net/publication/40109340Pricing and_Performance_in_Agri-Food_Supply_Chains

Eufic.org. (2020, Sep. 20). Evolution of Food Processing and Labeling in Food Production. [Online]. Available: https://www.eufic.org/en/food-production/article/food-production-1-3-the-evolution-of-meeting-nutritional-needs-through-proc

O. Schutter. (2020, Sep 20). Who’s Got the Power? Tackling Imbalances in Agricultural Supply Chains. [Online]. Available: https://wfto.com/news/who%E2%80%99-got-powernew-study-comfirms-imbalances-agricultural-supply-chains

A. Healy. (2021, Sep 20). Fresh Data Shows Decline in Farmer Share of Consumer Price for Food. [Online}.

Available: https://www.irishtimes.com/news/consumer/freshdata-shows-decline-in-farmer-share-of-consumer-


J. Madeley, Hungry for Trade: How the Poor Pay for Free Trade. Zed Books, London: UK, 2000, pp. 1-192.

K. Chen, A. W. Shepherd, and C. Da Silva. (2020, Sep 20). Changes in Food Retailing in Asia. Implications of Supermarket Procurement Practices for Farmers and Traditional Marketing Systems. [Online]. Available: https://www.fao.org/3/a0006e/a0006e.pdf

M. K. Hingley, “Power Imbalance in UK Agri-Food Supply Channels: Learning to Live with the

Supermarkets?,” Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 21, no. 1-2, pp. 63-88, Feb. 2005.

A. Hellberg-Bahr and A. Spiller, “How to Treat Farmers Fairly? Results of a Farmer Survey,” International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 87-97, Jan. 2012.

P. Blizkovsky and V. Berendes, “Economics of Fairness within the Food Supply Chain in Context of the EU,” Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, vol. 10, no. 4-5, pp. 116-107, Feb. 2016.

Fair World Project. (2020, Sep 20). Fairness for Farmers: A Report Assessing the Fairtrade Movement and the Role of Certification. [Online]. Available: https://thenaturalfarmer.org/article/the-role-of-fair-trade-and-fair-labor-labels-in-themovement-for-food-justice/

S. Seuring and M. Müller, “Core Issues in Sustainable Supply Chain Management a Delphi Study,” Business Strategy Environ., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 455-466, Dec. 2008.

J. Thompson, E. Millstone, I. Scoones et al., Agri-food System Dynamics: Pathways to Sustainability in an Era of Uncertainty. STEPS Centre, Sussex: UK, 2007, pp. 1-72.

M. Fritz and A. Matopoulos. “Sustainability in the Agri-Food Industry: A Literature Review and Overview of Current Trends,” in Proc. The 8th International Conference on Management in Agri-Food Chains and Networks, 2008, pp. 29-30.

D. of E. and S. A. United Nations. (2020, Sep 20). World Population Projected to Reach 9.8 Billion in 2050, and 11.2 Billion in 2100. [Online]. Available: https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/world


P. Chiengkul, The Political Economy of the Agri-Food System in Thailand: Hegemony, Counter-Hegemony, and Co-Optation of Oppositions. Routledge, Oxford: UK, 2019, pp. 1-228.

M. Hendrickson, P. H. Howard, and D. Constance, (2020, Sep 20). Power, Food and Agriculture: Implications for Farmers, Consumers and Communities. [Online]. Available: https://philhowardne.files.wordpress.coom


K. Lai and C. W. Wong, “Green Logistics Management and Performance: Some Empirical Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Exporters,” Omega, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 267-282, Jul. 2012.

S. Padel and K. Zander. (2020, Sep 20). Regional Production and ‘Fairness’ in Organic farming: Evidence from a CORE Organic Project. [Online]. Available: https://orgprints.org/id/eprint/18606/1/2010_ws4.3_Padel%26 _Zander_IFSA.pdf

J. Fałkowski, C. G. Ménard, R. J. Sexton et al., “Unfair Trading Practices in the Food Supply Chain: A Literature Review on Methodologies, Impacts and Regulatory Aspects,” Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2017, pp. 2-85.

M. Yoo and Y. Won, “A Study on the Transparent Price Tracing System in Supply Chain Management Based on Blockchain,” Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 4037, Nov.2018.

V. Albino, A. Balice, and R. M. Dangelico, “Environmental Strategies and Green Product Development: An Overview on Sustainability-Driven Companies,” Bus. Strategy Environ., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 83-96, Jan. 2009.

R. M. Dangelico and D. Pujari, “Mainstreaming Green Product Innovation: Why and How Companies Integrate Environmental Sustainability,” Journal Business Ethics, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 471-486, Feb. 2010.

M. L. Tseng, R. R. Tan, and A. B. Siriban-Manalang, “Sustainable Consumption and Production for Asia:

Sustainability through Green Design and Practice,” Journal Cleaner Production, vol. 40, pp. 1-5, Feb. 2013.

I. Karamitsos, M. Papadaki, and N. B. Al Barghuthi, “Design of the Blockchain Smart Contract: A use Case for Real Estate,” Journal to Information Security, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 177-190, Jan. 2018.

M. A. Shkoor. (2020, Sep 20). Everything You Need to Know About Public, Private, and Consortium Blockchain. [Online]. Available: https://medium.com/swlh/everything-you-need-toknow-about-public-private-and-consortium-blockchain-54821c159c7a

Hyperledger. (2020, Sep 20). Hyperledger Fabric – Introduction. [Online]. Available: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/release-2.2/blockchain.html

T. Aste, P. Tasca, and T. Di Matteo, “Blockchain Technologies: The Foreseeable Impact on Society and Industry,” IEEE, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 18-28, Sep. 2017.

J. Frankenfield, (2020, Sep 20). Consensus Mechanism (Cryptocurrency). [Online]. Available: shorturl.at/


G. Wood. (2020, Sep 20). PoA Private Chains. [Online]. Available: shorturl.at/auzQZ.

C. Born. (2020, Sep 20). Ethereum Proof-of-Authority on Azure. [Online]. Available: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/ethereum-proof-of-authority-on-azure/

Coinhouse. (2020, Sep. 20). What is Proof of Authority? [Online]. Available: https://www.coinhouse.com/


Binance Academy. (2020, Sep 20). Proof of Authority Explained. [Online]. Available: https://academy.


B. Curran. (2020, Sep. 20). What is Proof of Authority Consensus? Staking Your Identity on The Blockchain. [Online]. Available: https://blockonomi.com/proof-of-authority/

S. De Angelis, L. Aniello, R. Baldoni et al., “PBFT vs Proof-of-Authority: Applying the CAP Theorem to Permissioned Blockchain,” in Proc. Italian Conference on Cyber Security, 2018. pp. 1-11.