The Review of Modes of Operation and Randomization in Smartphone Passive Monitoring using WI-FI Probe Context

Main Article Content

Vikrom Maikaensarn

Abstract

WI-FI probe monitoring is a passive monitoring technique that collects information from the smartphone’s probe request information, using a sensor or sniffer, representing the monitored area’s users. Nonetheless, as technologies developed, more changes are applied to the smartphone, promoting the user’s privacy protection and extending the device’s functionality. At the same time, this caused a shift in the smartphone device’s probing behavior, which affects the effectiveness of WI-FI probe monitoring. In this study, by reviewing different factors that may affect smartphone WI-FI probe monitoring effectiveness, it was found that developers have adopted the MAC address randomization process in response to the user’s privacy protection. Although randomization caused noises in the data and altered the study’s outcome while the smartphone device is not connected to the internet, it is possible to monitor the users connected to the internet with the proper SSID and network structure setup.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Maikaensarn, V. (2021). The Review of Modes of Operation and Randomization in Smartphone Passive Monitoring using WI-FI Probe Context. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (ISJET), 5(2), 60–67. Retrieved from https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/isjet/article/view/244107
Section
Academic Article

References

A. Zanella, N. Bui, A. Castellani et al., “Internet of Things for Smart Cities,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-32, Feb. 2014.

X. Hu, L. Song, D. Van Bruggen et al., “Is There WiFi Yet? How Aggressive WiFi Probe Requests Deteriorate Energy and Throughput,” in Proc. The 2015 Internet Measurement Conference, 2015, pp. 317-323.

F. Potortì, A. Crivello, M. Girolami et al., “Localising Crowds Through Wi-Fi probes,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 75-76, pp. 87-97, Jun. 2018.

Y. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Chen, M. Gruteser et al., “E-eyes: Device-Free Location-Oriented Activity Identification Using Fine-Grained WiFi Signatures,” in Proc. Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking MOBICOM, 2014, pp. 617-628.

M. Seifeldin, A. Saeed, A. E. Kosba et. al., “Nuzzer: A Large-Scale Device-Free Passive Localization System

for Wireless Environments,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1321-1334, Jul. 2013.

X. Hu, P. Shen, Y. Shi et al., “Using Wi-Fi Probe and Location Data to Analyze the Human Distribution Characteristics of Green Spaces: A Case Study of the Yanfu Greenland Park, China,” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 54, p. 126733, Oct. 2020.

H. Hong, G. Silva, and M. Chan, “CrowdProbe: Non-Invasive Crowd Monitoring with Wi-Fi Probe,” ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable, and Ubiquitous Technologies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1-23, Sep. 2018.

M. Uras, R. Cossu, and L. Atzori, “PmA: A Solution for People Mobility Monitoring and Analysis Based on WiFi

Probes,” in Proc. 2019 4th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech), 2019, pp. 1-6.

ElectronicsNotes. (2021, Mar, 12). What is WiFi: IEEE802.11. [Online]. Available: https://www.electronics-note.com/articles/connectivity/wifi-ieee-802-11/what-is-wifi.php

DataPro. (2021, Mar, 12). 802.11 Wireless Info & FAQ. [Online]. Available: https://www.datapro.

net/techinfo/wifi_ _info.html

B. Mitchell. (2020, Mar. 12). How Far Will Your Wi-Fi Reach?. [Online]. Available: https://www.lifewire.com

/range-of-typical-wifi-network-816564

J. Franklin, D. McCoy, P. Tabriz et al., “Passive Data Link Layer 802.11 Wireless Device Driver Fingerprinting,” in Proc. The 15th Conference on USENIX Security Symposium, 2006, pp. 1-12.

D. Jaisinghani, V. Naik, R. Balan et al., “Experiences & Challenges with Server-Side WiFi Indoor Localization Using Existing Infrastructure,” in Proc. The 15th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services, 2018, pp. 226-235.

J. Watson. (2019, Mar. 12). 11 Best Packet Sniffers Reviewed in 2021 (Free + Paid). [Online]. Available: https:

//www.comparitech.com/net-admin/packet-sniffer-networkanalyzers/

S.-S. Jan, S.-J. Yeh, and Y. W. Liu, “Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System,” Sensors, vol. 15, no.9, pp. 21377-21393, Sep. 2015.

A. B. M. Musa and J. Eriksson, “Tracking Unmodified Smartphones Using Wi-Fi Monitors,” in Proc. The 10th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems, 2012, pp. 281-294.

W. Wang, Z. Lin, and J. Chen, “Promoting Energy Efficiency of HVAC Operation in Large Office Spaces with a Wi-Fi Probe Enabled Markov Time Window Occupancy Detection Approach,” Energy Procedia, vol. 143, pp. 204-209, Jan. 2017.

C. Wu, Z. Yang, Y. Liu, and W. Xi, “WILL: Wireless Indoor Localization without Site Survey,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 64-72, Apr. 2013.

A. Rai, K. K. Chintalapudi, V. N. Padmanabhan et al., “Zee: Zero-Effort Crowdsourcing for Indoor Localization,” in Proc. The Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Mobile computing and networking, 2012. pp. 293-304.

WireShark. (2021, Mar. 12). Chapter 1. Introduction. [Online]. Available: https://www.wiresshark.org/docs/

wsug_html/ChapterIntroduction.html

Motorola. (2021, Mar. 15). Use Sleep Mode to Save Power. [Online]. Available: https://help.motorola.

com/hc/3309/444/444/verizon/en-us/T1401264327.html

Huawei. (2021, Mar. 15). Can’t Find the Keep Wi-Fi on During Sleep Setting | HUAWEI Support Global. [Online]. Available: https://consumer.huawei.com/en/support/content/en-us00677572/

A. McCambridge. (2020, Mar. 15). How to Turn Off Wi-Fi During Sleep Mode on an Android Device. [Online]. Available: https://ccm.net/faq/35580-how-to-set-the-wi-fi-sleeppolicy- of-your-android-device

Resilio. (2021, Mar. 15). Configuring Auto Sleep & Battery Saver (Android). [Online]. Available: https://help.

resilio.com/hc/en-us/articles/204762699-Configuring-Auto-Sleep-Battery-Saver-Android-

J. Taylor. (2021, Mar. 15). How to Fix Wi-Fi Disconnects When iPhone Is Locked - iMobie Inc. [Online]. Available: https://www.imobie.com/support/wifi-disconnects-wheniphone- is-locked.htm

J. Freudiger, “How Talkative is Your Mobile Device? An Experimental Study of Wi-Fi Probe Requests,” in Proc. The 8th ACM Conference on Security & Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks, 2015, pp. 1-6.

M. Vanhoef, C. Matte, M. Cunche et al., “Why MAC Address Randomization is Not Enough: An Analysis of Wi-Fi Network Discovery Mechanisms,” in Proc. The 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 2016. pp. 413-424.

J. Martin, T. Mayberry, C. Donahue et al., “A Study of MAC Address Randomization in Mobile Devices and When it Fails,” Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies, vol. 2017. no. 4, Mar. 2017. pp. 1-23.

M. Burton. (2021, Mar. 15). Wi-Fi MAC Randomization– Privacy and Collateral Damage. [Online]. Available:

https://www.extremenetworks.com/extreme-networks-blog/wi-fi-mac-randomization-privacy-and-collateral-damage/

Eleven. (2020, Mar. 17). How MAC Address Randomization Can Affect the Wi-Fi Experience. [Online]. Available: https://blog.elevensoftware.com/how-mac-address-randomizationcan-affect-the-wifi-experience

Android. (2021, Mar. 17). Privacy Changes in Android 10. [Online]. Availablehttps://developer.android.

com/about/versions//10/privacy/changes

Apple. (2021, Mar. 17). Wi-Fi privacy. [Online]. Available:https://support.apple.com/guide/security/wi-fi-

privacysecb9cb3140c/web

TechRepublic. (2020, Mar. 17). How to Manage or DisableMAC Randomization in iOS and iPadOS 14. [Online]. Available:https://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-to-manage-ordisable-mac-randomization-in-ios-and-ipados-14/

Android. (2020, Mar. 17). Privacy: MAC Randomization. [Online]. Available: https://source.android.com/

devices/tech/connect/wifi-mac-randomization

W. Wang, A. Liu, M. Shahzad, et al., “Understanding and Modeling of WiFi Signal Based Human Activity

Recognition,” in Proc. The 21st Annual InternationalConference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2015.

pp. 65-76.

Android. (2021, Mar. 17). Privacy Changes in Android 10. [Online]. Available: https://developer.android.

com/about/versions//10/privacy/changes

Apple. (2021, Mar. 17). Wi-Fi privacy. [Online]. Available: https://support.apple.com/guide/security/wi-fi

privacysecb9cb3140c/web

TechRepublic. (2020, Mar. 17). How to Manage or Disable MAC Randomization in iOS and iPadOS 14. [Online]. Available:https://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-to-manage-ordisable-mac-randomization-in-ios

-and-ipados-14/

Android. (2020, Mar. 17). Privacy: MAC Randomization. [Online]. Available: https://source.android.com/

devices/tech/connect/wifi-mac-randomization

W. Wang, A. Liu, M. Shahzad, et al., “Understanding and Modeling of WiFi Signal Based Human Activity

Recognition,” in Proc. The 21st Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2015.

pp. 65-76.

Y. Chen, N. Crespi, L. Lv et al., “Locating Using Prior Information: Wireless Indoor Localization Algorithm,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 43. no. 4, pp. 463-464, Oct. 2013.

A. Goswami, L. E. Ortiz, and S. R. Das, “WiGEM: A learning-based Approach for Indoor Localization,” In Proc. The Seventh Conference on emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies, 2011. pp. 1-12.

H. Liu, H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, and J. Liu, “Survey of Wireless Indoor Positioning Techniques and Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1067-1080, Nov. 2007.

M. Uras, R. Cossu, E. Ferrara et al., “WiFi Probes Sniffing: an Artificial Intelligence-Based Approach for MAC Addresses de-randomization,” in Proc. 2020 IEEE 25th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2020, pp. 1-6.

M. Uras, R. Cossu, E. Ferrara et al., “PmA: A Real-World System for People Mobility Monitoring and Analysis Based on Wi-Fi probes,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 270, p. 122084, Oct. 2020.