Main Article Content
In this paper, we focus on improving the AMDF pitch detection algorithm (PDA) rather than designing a complete pitch detection system including many complex modification stages. As a hot classical PDA, generating half or multiple pitch errors is a usual defect of AMDF, especially in noisy conditions. Based on a deep analysis of many existing improvements of AMDF, we summarize two modified frameworks and classify the most outstanding improvements into them. Then we propose a novel and simple modified framework for AMDF to conquer the defect of AMDF. For our framework, we also present
two kinds of falling trend extraction methods to obtain the proposed Trend Analysis based AMDF
(TAAMDF). Finally, Experiments on the Keele database are conducted to evaluate our framework.
Compared with some outstanding modified AMDFs and well-known ACF, modified AMDF based
on our framework shows the best performance especially its robustness to different noises.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
D. A. Krubsack and R. J. Niederjohn, “An Autocerrelation Pitch Detector and Voicing Decision with Confidence Measures Developed for Noise Corrupted Speech,” IEEE, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 319-329, Feb. 1991.
M. Ross, H. Shaffer, and R. Freudberg et al., “Average Magnitude Difference Function Pitch Extractor,” IEEE, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 353-362, Oct. 1974.
S. Ahmadi and A. S. Spanias, “Cepsrum-Based Pitch Detection Using a New Statistical V/UV Classification Algorithm,” IEEE, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 333-338, May. 1999.
F. Kurth, A. Cornaggia-Urrigshardt, and S. Urrigshardt, “Robust F0 estimation in Noisy Speech Signals Using Shift Autocorrelation,” in ICASSP 2014-39th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Florence, Italy, 2014, pp. 1468-1472.
P. Pelle and C. Estienne, “A Robust Pitch Detector Based on Time Envelope and Individual Harmonic Information Using Phase Locked Loops and Consensual Decisions,” in ICASSP 2014-39th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Florence, Italy,
, pp. 1483-1487.
P. Boersma, “Accurate Short-Term Analysis of The Fundamental Frequency and The Harmonics-To-Noise Ratio 0f a Sampled Sound,” in Proc. IFA International Conference,
, pp. 97-110.
A. De Cheveigné and H. Kawahara, “YIN, a Fundamental Frequency Estimator for Speech and Music,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 1917-1930, Apr. 2002.
W. Zhang, G. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Pitch Estimation Based on Circular AMDF,” in ICASSP 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2002, pp. I-341-I-344.
G. Muhammad, “Noise Robust Pitch Detection Based on Extended AMDF,” in ISSPIT 2008-IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2008, pp. 133-138.
L. Gu and R. Liu, “High Performance Mandarin Pitch Estimation,” Acta Electronica Sinica, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 8-11, Jan. 1999.
T. E. Tremain, “The Government Standard Linear Predictive Coding Algorithm: LPC-10,” Speech Technology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 40-49, Feb. 1982.
Y. Zong, Y. Zeng, and M. Li et al., “Pitch Detection Using EMD-Based AMDF,” in Proc. ICICIP 2013, Beijing, China, 2013, pp. 594-597.
N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long et al., “The Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Hilbert Spectrum for Nonlinear and Non-Stationary Time Series Analysis,” in Proc. the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 1998, pp. 903-995.
G. Meyer, F. Plante, and W. Ainsworth, “A Pitch Extraction Reference Database,” in Proc. European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, EUROSPEECH 1995, Madrid, Spain, 1995, pp. 827-840.
L. R. Rabiner, M. J. Cheng, and C. A. McGonegal, “A Comparative Performance Study of Several Pitch Detection Algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 399-417, Oct. 1976.
A. Varga and H. J. M. Steeneken, “Assessment for Automatic Speech Recognition: II. NOISEX-92: A Database and an Experiment to Study the Effect of Additive Noise on Speech Recognition Systems,” Speech Communication, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 247-251. Jul. 1993.
T. Shimamura and H. Kobayashi, “Weighted Autocorrelation for Pitch Extraction of Noisy Speech,” IEEE, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 727-730, Oct. 2001.