Main Article Content
The demand for Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steel Castings has increased with investment in the petrochemical industry, transportation infrastructure and electric vehicle production in Thailand. To achieve high quality casting of these two grades, alloying elements melt quality, pre- and post—treatment of castings play an important role in quality level determination. These important factors are discussed along with guidelines for good manufacturing practices to achieve the required microstructures and high quality castings from the domestic foundry sector in Thailand.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
J. T. H. Pearce, “Corrosion - a layman’s guide,” Insight: Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 10-16, Jan. 1997.
J. R. Davis, ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, Ohio, USA: ASM International, 1994, pp. 577.
R. A. Covert and A.H. Tuthill, “Stainless Steels: An Introduction to Their Metallurgy and Corrosion Resistance,” Dairy Food and Environmental Sanitation, vol. 20, no.7, pp. 506-517, 2000.
I. Alvarez-Armas and S. Degallaux-Moreuil, “Duplex Stainless Steels,” New York, USA: Wiley-Iste, 2009, pp. 47-114.
K. H. Lo, C. H. Shek, and J. K. L. Lai, “Recent developments in stainless steels,” Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports, vol. 65, 2009, pp. 39-104.
IMOA, Practical Guidelines for the Fabrication of Duplex Stainless Steel, 3rd ed., London, 2014, pp. 68.
C. Houska, “Castings: Stainless Steel and Nickel Base,” in Nickel Institute, Toronta, Canada, 2001, pp. 88.
ASTM A743/A743M-19, “Standard Specification for Castings, Iron-Chromium, Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Corrosion Resistant, for General Application,” in ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, pp. 8.
ASTM International, Standard Specification for Castings, Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Corrosion Resistant, for Severe Service, Castings, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, pp. 5-6.
J. Charles, J. Mithieux, J. Krautschick et al, “A New European 200 Series Standard to Substitute 304 Austenitics,” Revue de Metallurgie Cahiers D’Informations Techniques, vol.106, no. 2, pp. 90-98, Feb. 2009.
W. Delong, “Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal,” Welding Journal, vol. 53, pp. 273s-286s, Jul. 1974.
M. Bermejo, “Predictive and Measurement Methods for Delta Ferrite Determination in Stainless Steels,” Welding Journal, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 113s-121s, Apr. 2012.
P. Guiraldenq and O. H. Dupare, “The genesis of the Schaeffler diagram in the history of stainless steel,” Metallurgical Research and Technology, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 613-622, Oct. 2017.
R. Dayal, N. Parvathavarthini and B. Raj, “Effect of metallurgical variables on sensitization kinetics in austenitic stainless steels,” International Material Reviews, vol. 50, pp. 129-156, Jun. 2005.
J. T. H. Pearce, “Taking More Interest in Corrosion,” Metal Casting Technologies, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 23-28, Jul. 2013.
J. Charles, “The duplex stainless steels: materials to meet your needs,” in Duplex Stainless Steels’ 91, Beaune, France, 1991, pp. 3-48.
A. J. Sedriks, “Stress corrosion cracking: Materials, Performance and Evaluation,” in ASM International, 2nd, OH, USA, 2017, pp. 95-134.
J. Chater, “Duplex stainless use is expanding in valves and pumps,” Stainless Steel World, pp. 28-32, Nov. 2015.
ASTM A890 / A890M-18a, “Standard Specification for Castings, Iron-Chromium-Nickel-Molybdenum Corrosion- Resistant, Duplex (Austenitic/Ferritic) for General Application,” in ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, pp. 5.
ASTM A995/A995M-19, “Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic - Ferritic (Duplex) Stainless Steel, for Pressure - Containing Parts,” in ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, pp. 5.
R. Davison and J. Redmond, “Practical guide to using 6Mo austenitic stainless steel,” Materials Performance, vol. 27, pp. 39-43, Dec. 1988.
J. Charles, “Super duplex stainless steels: structure and properties,” in Duplex Stainless Steels’ 91, Beaune, France, 1991, pp. 151-168.
J. Nilsson, “Overview: Super Duplex Stainless Steels,” Materials Science and Technology, vol. 8, no. 8 pp. 686-700, Jul. 1992.
R. Kane, “Superstainless Steels resist hostile environments,” Advanced Materials and Processes, vol. 7, pp. 16-20, Jul. 1993.
H.Vannevik, J. Nilsson, J. Frodigh, and P. Kangas, “Effect of Elemental Partitioning on Pitting Resistance of High Nitrogen Duplex Stainless Steels,” ISIJ International, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 807-812, Mar. 1996.
L. F. Garfias-Mesias, J. M. Sykes, and C. D. S. Tuck, “The effect of phase compositions on the pitting corrosion of 25 Cr duplex stainless steel in chloride solutions,” Corrosion Science, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1319-1330, Aug. 1996.
R. Perren, T. A. Suter, P. J. Uggowitzer et al., “Corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steels in chloride ion containing environments: investigations by means of a new microelectrochemical method: I. Precipitate-free states,” Corrosion Science, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 707-726, Apr. 2001.
R. Francis and S. Hebdon. “The Selection of Stainless Steels for Seawater Pumps,” in Corrosion 2015 NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series, Dallas, TX, USA, 2015, pp. 17.
ASTM Standard G48-11, “Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by use of Ferric Chloride Solution,” in ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, pp. 11.
Y. Sun, J. Wang, Y. Yiang et al., “A comparative study on potentiodynamic and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature of austenitic stainless steels,” Materials & Corrosion, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 44-52, Aug. 2018.
J. T. H. Pearce, “Ferrous casting alloys for heat resistance,” Metal Casting Technologies, vol. 55, pp. 36-41, Nov. 2009.  G. J. Cox, “Some effects of composition on the properties of cast austenitic heat-resisting steels,” British Foundryman, vol. 73, pp. 1-21, 1980.
S. Ou, K. D. Carlson, and C. Beckerman, “Feeding and Risering of High-Alloy Steel Castings,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 97-116, Feb. 2005.
J. Campbell, “Stop Pouring; Start Casting,” International Journal of Metalcasting, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 7-18, Sep. 2012.
J. T. H. Pearce, “Stainless Steel Castings: Heat Treatment Stops the Rot,” Metal Casting Technologies, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 26-32, 2003.
ASTM G59-97 (2014), “Standard Test Method for Conducting Potentiodynamic Polarization Resistance Measurements,” in ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014. pp. 4.
D. V. Rooyen, “The potentiostat and corrosion studies,” in Corrosion, 3rd ed., vol. 2, L. L. Shreir et al. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994, pp. 133-153.
I. Calliari, G. Straffelini, and E. Ramous, “Investigation of secondary phase effect in 2205 DSS fracture toughness,” Materials Science and Technology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 81-86, Jan. 2010.
S. Kuimalee, J. T. H. Pearce, and T. Chairuangsri, “Formation of Precipitated Phases in a Cast Duplex Stainless Steel,” Metal Casting Technologies, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 42-46, Sep. 2011.
S. Kuimalee, T. Chairuangsri, J. T. H. Pearce et al. “Quantitative Analysis of Complex Metal Carbide Formed During Furnace Cooling of Cast Duplex Stainless Steel Using EELS and EDS in the TEM,” Micron, vol. 41, pp. 423-429, Jul. 2010.
S. Kuimalee, J. T. H. Pearce, and T. Chairuangsri. “Isothermal Phase Transformation Sequence in Fe-22wt%Cr-3.2wt%Mo-6.25wt%Ni-0.037wt%C Cast Duplex Stainless Steel,” Chiang
Mai Journal of Science, vol. 38 no. 1, pp. 47-55. Aug. 2011.
N. Toomwongsa. (2018, Sep). Thailand Industry Outlook 2018-2020 Steel Industry [Online]. Available: https://www. krungsri.com/bank/getmedia/6a73f902-bcf6-4f6b-9747-3774f9ef4dd2/IO_Steel_180903_EN_EX.aspx
P. Snelgrove. “Stainless steel automotive and transport developments,” in Proc. International Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF), 2016, pp. 1-5.
N. Sathirachinda, R. Pettersson, S. Wessman et al., “SKPFM Study of Chromium Nitrides in 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel-Implications and Limitations,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1792-1798, Jan. 2011.