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The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the root of Cyperus kyllingia Endl. were obtained from hydrodistillation and subsequently analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Twenty-eight compounds were identified, accounting for 89.62% of the total oil that consisted mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.21%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.08%). α-Cadinol (18.62%), caryophyllene oxide (12.18%), α-muurolol (11.56%), Cyperene (10.15%), and α-Cyperone (5.72%) were identified as the major components. The essential oil showed significantl cytotoxicity against NCI-H187, and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.7 and 13.3 µg/mL, and was non-cytotoxic against Vero cells. Furthermore, the oil was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a MIC value of 25.0 µg/ mL.
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