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Upland rice usually produces relative low yield due to an erratic rainfall throughout growing season. Some physiological traits may associate with drought tolerant capacity and yield productivity in upland condition. Two experiments were conducted to study the physiological traits that associate to drought tolerant, yield, and correlation between drought tolerant traits and yield of 5 upland rice varieties as follow: Niaw Dum Luem Phua, Sew Mae Jan, Noot Sara, Khun Wang, and Pa-yah Leum Gaeng with 3 check varieties; IR1552, Baguio, and Pathum Thani 1. Four drought tolerant associated traits; longest root, root dry weight, root/shoot dry weight ratio and stomatal conductant at 40-days after sowing were studied in plastic pots. A completely randomized design with 3 replications was used; data were sampling recorded for 10 hills/experimental unit. While yield trial on unbound upland environment was carried out in rainy season, 2017 (August - December), a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications was used, and data were sampling recorded for 10 hills/unit. Four drught tolerant related physiological traits of all 5 upland rice varieties were better than Pathum Thani 1, with higher longest root, root dry weight, root/shoot dry weight ratio than Pathum Thani 1 meanwhile the stomatal conductivity was lower than Pathum Thani 1. Correlation Coefficient (r) between longest root and root/shoot dry weight ratio to grain yield were significantly positive at which (r) were 0.733** and 0.565**, respectively.
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