Prototype System for Production of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF-5) from Municipal Solid Waste Using Natural Rubber as Binder


  • Kiattisak Rattanadilok Na Phuket College of Innovation and Management, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkhla 90000, Thailand
  • Tussanee Srimachai Community Innovation Learning and Transfer Center “Thung Yai Sarapee Model” Songkhla Rajabhat University, Satun campus, Satun 91100, Thailand
  • Chaiyoot Meengam Faculty of Industrial Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkhla 90000, Thailand
  • Polphat Ruamcharoen Faculty of Science and Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkhla 90000, Thailand



RDF-5 fuel, municipal solid waste, natural rubber binder, prototype system


The development of RDF-5 fuel from community waste using natural rubber as a binder was investigated. The results showed that the calorific and heat values were increased proportionately to the amount of rubber added. The ratio with the highest calorific value was 50:50, followed by 75:25, 90:10, and 95:5. The calorific value was 40.67 MJ/kg (9720 kcal/kg), 40.24 MJ/kg (9,617 kcal/kg), 39.28 (9,389 kcal/kg) and 39.18 MJ/kg (9,365 kcal/kg), respectively. Compared with 100:0, have a calorific value of 38.84 MJ/kg (9,284 kcal/kg). The experimental addition of natural rubber as a binder makes the combustion process more complete, resulting in faster fuel ignition time or easier igniting, less ash content, and being environmentally friendly. The research team chose to develop the ratio of 95:5 because the economic analysis showed a fast payback period of only 5.72 years. So, the ratio of 95:5 is the optimal condition that can scale up to the industrial level. The production cost of RDF-5 is 1,935 baht/ton for 50 baht/kg of natural rubber. The amount of emission caused by the combustion process of RDF-5 (95:5) passed the standard. Therefore, the evaluation of this research found that RDF-5 fuels from community waste using natural rubber as a binder. It is one of the attractive alternatives to renewable fuel generation and solid waste management solutions and helps improve the environmental quality of communities.


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