EFFECTS OF MULCHING MATERIALS ON WEED CONTROL IN UPLAND RICE CULTIVATION
Keywords:Dominant Weed, Upland Rice, Mulching Material, Highland
Mulching is one of weed management method for reducing herbicide application and supporting sustainable agriculture approach. Efficacy of weed control not only a completely weed elimination but also an elimination of dominant weeds causing of yield losses. Especially in upland rice cultivation that weeds were the most troublesome for growth and yield of upland rice. The objectives of this study were to evaluate dominant weed species in upland rice cultivation system and to estimate effect of mulching materials on weed control and growth of upland rice. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. Mulching materials consisted of black plastic sheets, 80% black shade nets, 80% green shade nets, paper of rice straws and no mulching. Species, density, dry weight and summed dominance ratio of weeds were collected at 30 and 60 days after planting (DAP) and growth of rice was recorded at maximum tillering stage. The results showed that nine broadleaf, three grasses and one sedge were found in upland rice field. The most dominant weed was billy goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides) and blackjack (Bidens pilosa) and itch grass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis) was general dominant weed. At 30 DAP, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) of weed density or weed dry weight among mulching materials treatments. In the opposite, at 60 DAP, black plastic sheets, 80% black shade nets and 80% green shade nets decreased number of weed species in upland rice field and decreased weed density and weed dry weight for 35.63% and 108.32% (respectively) comparing to no mulching. Paper of rice straws, however, showed no effect on weed control but it tended to enhancing weed growth. In addition, there were no effect of mulching materials on height and tiller numbers of upland rice.
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