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The objective of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) obtained from 10 farms located in Chawang District, and Thungyai District, Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The samples were collected during April and June 2019. Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila were found in the samples and confirmed by PCR technique. Disk diffusion assay was used to test bacteria response to 8 antibiotics, namely, Amoxicillin-clavulanate 30 µg, Cephalexin 30 µg, Gentamicin 10 µg, Enrofloxacin 5 µg, Ciprofloxacin 5 µg, Sulfamethoxazole 25 µg, Oxytetracycline 30 µg, and Tetracycline 30 µg. It was found that Aeromonas hydrophila could resist 30% of Amoxicillin-clavulanate, Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline, 20% of Enrofloxacin, 10% of Gentamicin, and 0% of Ciprofloxacin and Slufamethozazole. While Streptococcus agalactiae could resist 75% of Cephalexin, 50% of Tetracycline, 25% of Amoxicillin-clavulanate, Oxytetracycline, Gentamicin, and 0% of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Sulfamethoxazole. It was suggested that antibiotic resistance partially arose from the contaminants from household sewage, wastewater from hospital or fish farms operated at the beginning of the river. This might cause genomic development in bacteria in the river to resist the antibiotics. It was recommended that biosecurity, specie selection, development of disease-resistant aquatic animals, and use of microorganism and immune-stimulants should be employed to lessen the use of antibiotics.
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