The Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye on Activated Carbon Prepared from Molasses by Using Chemical and Microwave Activation

Main Article Content

Adisak Jaturapiree
Trin Pathomnithipinyo
Ekrachan Chaichana
Thanunya Saowapark


            This research aims to produce activated carbon from molasses via a chemical activation process with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and a microwave heating process, which consumes less energy and provides more rapid and uniform heat distribution than a conventional heating. The obtained activated carbon was then characterized with BET, SEM and FTIR. It exhibited a large specific surface area of 1,631 m2/g, and a total pore volume of 1.124 cm3/g consisting of mesopore and micropore. In addition, the active functional groups were also found on the surface of the activated carbon. Thus, it was brought for the adsorption test with methylene blue. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon increased with time and reached the equilibrium within 8 hours. The adsorption data of the activated carbon were corresponded to Langmuir isotherm with the highest adsorption capacity of 370.37 mg/g. The adsorption kinetic of the activated carbon exhibited pseudo-second order reaction suggesting to the chemisorption phenomenon. From the thermodynamic study, it revealed that the adsorption process were endothermic and spontaneous reactions.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บทความวิจัย (Research Articles)


[1] K. P. Singh, D. Mohan, S. Sinha, G. S. Tondon and D. Gosh, “Color removal from wastewater using low-cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, pp. 1965–1976, 2003.
[2] K. Kadirvelu, M. Kavipriya, C. Karthika, M. Radhika, N. Vennilamani and S. Pattabhi, “Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 87, pp. 129–132, 2003.
[3] A. Demirbas, “Agricultural based activated carbons for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions: A review,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 167, pp. 1-9, 2009.
[4] P. González-García, “Activated carbon from lignocellulosics precursors: A review of the synthesis methods, characterization techniques and applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 1393-1414, 2018
[5] M. A. Tadda, A. Ahsan, A. Shitu, M. ElSergany, T. Arunkumar, B. Jose, M. A. Razzaque and N. N. NikDaud, “A review on activated carbon: process, application and prospects,” Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research, vol. 2, pp. 7-13, 2016.
[6] M. J. Ahmed, “Application of agricultural based activated carbons by microwave and conventional activations for basic dye adsorption: Review,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 89-99, 2016.
[7] K. Legrouri, E. Khouya, M. Oumam, H. Hannache, M. Ezzine, S. Fakhi and N. Hanafi, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbons obtained from molasses by phosphoric acid activation,” Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science, vol. 4, pp. 352-366, 2018.
[8] M. Moosavi-Nasab, M. Gavahian, A. R. Yousefi and H. Askari, “Fermentative production of dextran using food industry wastes,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 68, pp. 875-877, 2010.
[9] E. Pehlivan, “Production and characterization of activated carbon from pomegranate pulp by phosphoric acid,” Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A, vol. 5, pp. 1-8, 2018.
[10] K. Y. Foo and B. H. Hameed, “Mesoporous activated carbon from wood sawdust by K2CO3 activation using microwave heating,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 111, pp. 425–432, 2012.
[11] S. Joshi and B. P. Pokharel, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris) seed stone by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide,” Journal of the Institute of Engineering, vol. 9, pp. 79–88, 2014.
[12] S. Choojit and C. Sangwichien, “preparation of activated carbon production from oil palm empty fruit bunch and its application,” Kasem Bundit Engineering Journal, vol. 8, pp. 48-67, 2018.
[13] X. Wang , X. Liang, Y. Wang, X. Wang, M. Liu, D. Yin, S. Xia, J. Zhao and Y. Zhang, “Adsorption of copper (II) onto activated carbons from sewage sludge by microwave-induced phosphoric acid and zinc chloride activation,” Desalination, vol. 278, pp. 231–237, 2011.
[14] M. J. Ahmed and S. K. Dhedan, “Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics modeling of methylene blue adsorption on agricultural wastes-based activated carbons,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, vol. 317, pp. 9-14, 2012.
[15] B. H. Hameed, A. L. Ahmad and K. N. A. Latiff, “Adsorption of basic dye (methylene blue) onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 75, pp. 143-149, 2007.
[16] Y. Chen, B. Huang, M. Huang and B. Cai, “ On the preparation and characterization of activated carbon from mangosteen shell,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 42, pp. 837–842, 2011.
[17] V. Fierro, G. Mũniza, A. H. Basta, H. El-Saied and A. Celzard, “Rice straw as precursor of activated carbons: activation with ortho-phosphoric acid,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 181, pp. 27-34, 2010.
[18] T. C. Chandra, M. M. Mirna, Y. Sudaryanto and S. Ismadji, “Adsorption of basic dye onto activated carbon prepared from durian shell: Studies of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 127, pp. 121–129, 2007.
[19] L. Liu, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, H. Zhu and Q. He, “Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions by sewage sludge based granular activated carbon: adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics,” The Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, vol. 58, pp. 2248-2253, 2013.
[20] H. Deng, L. Yang, G. Tao and J. Dai, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from cotton stalk by microwave assisted chemical activation—application in methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 166, pp. 1514–1521. 2009.
[21] K. Y. Foo and B. H. Hameed, “Adsorption characteristics of industrial solid waste derived activated carbon prepared by microwave heating for methylene blue,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 99, pp. 103–109, 2012.
[22] S. Lagergren and B. K. Svenska, “For the so-called theory of adsorption of dissolved substances,” Kung. Svenska Vetenskapsakad Handlingar, vol. 24, pp. 1–39, 1898.
[23] Y. S. Ho, “Review of second-order models for adsorption systems,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 136, pp. 681-689, 2006.
[24] T. A. Khana, E. A. Khanb and S. Shahjahan, “Adsorptive uptake of basic dyes from aqueous solution by novel brown linseed deoiled cake activated carbon: Equilibrium isotherms and dynamics,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 3084–3095, 2016.