Effects of using green banana flour as a substitute for wheat flour on the production of chiffon cakes

Main Article Content

Suminya Teeta
Mali Sarobol
Wanida Pharanat
Narissara Muangtha
Yanisa Poratoso



The flour made from green bananas contains a lot of resistant starch and can be used in the baking and confectionery sectors as a fiber source to create functional foods like functional cakes. The purpose of this study was to develop a formal chiffon cake. Green banana flour (GBF) was substituted for wheat flour in various proportions (0, 20%, 50%, and 100%) to make unique chiffon cakes. The results showed that the L* values decreased with an increasing percentage of GBF substitution in wheat flour, indicating that higher substitution for green banana flour gave progressively darker chiffon cake. The a* value increased with an increasing percentage of GBF in the chiffon cake, whi. suggests that the cake became more reddish The b* values decreased with an increasing percentage of GBF substitution in wheat flour, which indicates that the cake became less yellow The color change had the lowest value at 20% of GBF and the highest value at 100% of whole wheat flour. The chiffon cakes with 20% GBF had the lowest fracturability value of 3.20±0.21 N, whereas the control chiffon cakes had the highest value of 4.89±0.17 N. The hardness decreased as the GBF substitution increased from 8.88±0.14 to 6.06±0.26 N. The lowest hardness value of 6.06±0.26 N was observed in chiffon cakes with 100% GBF. The highest hardness value was 8.88±0.14 N in control chiffon cakes. There was no significant difference in hardness at 20, 50, and 100% GBF. Springiness at 100% GBF were significantly different fromat 20% and 50% GBF. The addition of GBF had no influence on stickiness or cohesivenes.

Article Details



Suvittawatt, A . (2014). Thailand’s Banana Supply Chain Management: Export Success Factors. International Journal of Management and Business Research, 3, 6-11.

Agama-acevedo, E, Islas-hernández, J, Pacheco-vargas G, Osorio-díaz P., & Arture bello-pérez L. (2012). Starch digestibility and glycemic index of cookies partially substituted with unripe banana flour. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 177-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. lwt.2011.10.010

Ávila, B.P, Braganca, G.C.M., Rockenbach R., Alves, G.D., Monks, J., Gularte M.A., & Elias, M.C. (2017). Physical and sensory characteristics of cake prepared with six whole-grain flours. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 11, 1486-1492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694- 017-9527-0

Bharathi, N.D, Dasgupta, P. & Venkatachalam, C.D. Studies on the formulation of cake using green banana flour. AIP Conference Proceedings. 2387. https://doi.org/10.1063 /5.0070452

Borges, C.V., Maraschin, M. Coelho, D.S., Leonel, M., Gomez, H.A.G., & Belin, M.A.F. (2020). Nutritional value and antioxidant compounds during the ripening and after domestic cooking of bananas and plantains. International Food Research Journal, 132, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.foodres. 2020.109061

Chaguri, L., Sanchez, M.S., & Flammi, V.P. (2017). Tadini CC. green banana (Musa cavendishii) osmotic dehydration by non-caloric solutions: modeling, physical-chemical properties, color, and texture. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10, 615-629. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11947-016-1839-2

Coelho, M.S., & Salas-Mellado, M.M. (2015). Effects of substituting chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour or seeds for wheat flour on the quality of the bread. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 60, 729-736. https:// doi.org/10.1016 /j.lwt.2014.10.033

De la Torre-Gutiérrez, L., Chel-Guerrero L.A., & Betancur-Ancona, D. (2008). Functional properties of square banana (Musa balbisiana) starch. Food Chemistry, 106, 1138- 1144. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j. foodchem.2007.07.044

De Souza Viana, E., Dos Santos, De Souza A., Reis, R.C., & Dos Santos V.J. (2018). Application of green banana flour for partial substitution of wheat flour in sliced bread. Semina:Ciencias Agrarias, 39, 2399- 2408. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679- 0359.2018v39n6p239

Der Agopian, R.G., Soares, C.A., Purgatto, E., Cordenuns, B.R., & Lajolo, F.M. (2008). Identification of fructooligosaccharides in different banana cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 3305-3310. https://doi.org/ 10.1021/jf073011l

Di Cairano, M., Caruso, M.C., Galgano, F., Favati F., Ekere, N., & Tchuenbou, M.F. (2021). Effect of sucrose replacement and resistant starch addition on textural properties of gluten-free doughs and biscuits. European Food Research and Technology, 247, 707-718. https://doi.org/10.1007 /s00217- 020-03659

Giraldo, T.A., Gibert, O., Ricci, J., Dufour, D., Mestres, C., & Bohuon, P. (2015). Digestibility prediction of cooked plantain flour as a function of water content and temperature. Carbohydrate Polymers, 118, 257- 265. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j. carbpol.2014.11.016

Gomes, A.A.B., Ferreira, M.E., & Pimentel T.C. (2016). Bread with flour obtained from green banana with its peel as partial substitute for wheat flour: Physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics and acceptance. International Food Research Journal, 23, 2214-2222.

Hedayati, S., Majzoobi, M., & Farahnaky, A. (2018). Batter rheology and quality of sponge cake enriched with high percentage of resistant starch (Hi-maize). International Journal of Food Engineering, 14, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe2017-0293

Hosokawa, K., Ohishi, K., Ikeda, T., & Inagaki K. (2020). Properties of ripe banana flour and application to gluten-free breadmaking. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 44, 1-8. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/ jfpp.14789

Izidoro, D.R., Sierakowski, M.R., Haminiuk, C.W.I., & De Souza, C.F. (2011). Scheer ADP. Physical and chemical properties of ultrasonically, spray-dried green banana (Musa cavendish) starch. Journal of Food Engineering, 104, 639-648. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.jfoodeng.2011.02.002

Kamali, R., Dadashi, S., & Dehghannya, J. (2021). Production of green banana powder using foam-mat drying as influenced by drying air temperature: Experimental and 3D numerical study. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 44, 1-17. https://doi. org/10.1111 /jfpe.13703

Khoozani, A. Birch, J., & Bekhit, A. (2020). Textural properties and characteristics of whole green banana flour produced by air-oven and freeze-drying processing. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14, 1533-1542. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11694-020-00402-7

Kumar, P.S., Uma, S., Nambi, E., & Nallappagounder, K. (2019). Thin layer drying kinetics of banana var. monthan (ABB): Influence of convective drying on nutritional quality, microstructure, thermal properties, color, and sensory characteristics. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 42, 1-12. https://doi. org/10.1111 /jfpe.13020

Mabogo, F.A., Mashau, M.E., & Ramashia, S.E. (2021). Effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with unripe banana flour on the functional, thermal, and physicochemical characteristics of flour and biscuits. International Food Research Journal, 28, 138- 147. https://doi.org/10.47836 / ifrj.28.1.14

Mashau, M.E., Rambau, F.D., & Kgatla, T.E. (2022). Influence of unripe banana flour incorporation on the physical, antioxidant properties and consumer acceptability of biscuits. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 12. https://doi. org/10.55251/jmbfs.2632

Mau, J.L., Lee,C.C., Chen, Y.P., & Lin, S.D. (2017). Physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory characteristics of chiffon cake prepared with black rice as replacement for wheat flour. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 75, 434-439. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.09.019

Menezes, E.W., Tadini, C.C., Tribess, T.B., Zuleta, A., Binaghi, J., & Pak, N. (2011). Chemical composition and nutritional value of unripe banana flour (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 66, 231-237. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11130-011-0238-0

Miller, R. (2015). Cakes: Types of cakes in encyclopedia of food and health (3rd ed.). 2015. Elsevier Ltd. https:// doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384947- 2.00100-8

Moreno, R.B. (2019). Nutritional composition and sensory quality evaluation of Philippine choco chiffon cake. JTHCA, 12, 446-455.

Öksüz, T., & Karakaş, B. (2016). Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/23 311932.2016.1178693

Paula, A.M., & Conti-Silva, A.C. (2014). Texture profile and correlation between sensory and instrumental analyses on extruded snacks. International Journal of Food Engineering, 121, 9-14. https://doi. org/10.1016/ j.jfoodeng.2013.08.007

Pereira, G.A., Arruda, H.S., Molina, G., & Pastore, G.M. (2018). Extraction optimization and profile analysis of oligosaccharides in banana pulp and peel. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42, 1-10. https:// doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13408

Pereira, J., Malairaj, S., Brohi, S.A., & Boateng, E.F. (2020). Impact of unripe banana flour on water states, rheological behavior and structural properties of my fibrillar protein composite gel. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 125(4). 109276.

Pico, J., Xu, K., Guo, M., Mohamedshah, Z., Ferruzzi, M.G., & Martinez, M.M. (2019). Manufacturing the ultimate green banana flour: Impact of drying and extrusion on phenolic profile and starch bioaccessibility. Food Chemistry 297, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.foodchem.2019.124990

Rodríguez-Ambriz, S.L., Islas-Hernández J.J., Agama-Acevedo, E., Tovar, J., & Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2018). Characterization of a fiber-rich powder prepared by liquefaction of unripe banana flour. Food Chemistry, 107, 1515-1521. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.foodchem.2007.10.007

Sanz, T., Salvador, A., Baixauli, R., & Fiszman, S.M. (2009). Evaluation of four types of resistant starch in muffins. II. Effects in texture, colour and consumer response. European Food Research and Technology, 22, 197-204. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/ s00217-009-1040-1

Segundo, C., Román, L., Gómez, M., & Martínez, M.M. (2017a). Mechanically fractionated flour isolated from green bananas (M. cavendishii var. nanica) as a tool to increase the dietary fiber and phytochemical bioactivity of layer and sponge cakes. Food Chemistry, 219, 240-248. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.foodchem.2016.09.143

Segundo, C., Román, L., Lobo, M., Martinez, M.M., & Gómez, M. (2017). Ripe banana flour as a source of antioxidants in layer and sponge cakes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 72, 365-371. https://doi. org/10.1007 /s11130-017-0630-5

Sirisoontaralak, P., Suthirak, P., Papaka, K., & Vongsawasdi, P. (2017). Development of shelf stable chiffon cake using gamma irradiation. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 75, 78-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. lwt.2016 .08.034

Tasnim, T., Das, P.C., Begum, A.A., Nupur, A.H., & Mazumder, M.A.R. (2020). Nutritional, textural and sensory quality of plain cake enriched with rice rinsed water treated banana blossom flour. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 2, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jafr.2020.100071

Tribess, T.B., Hernández-Uribe, J.P., MéndezMontealvo, M.G.C., Menezes, E.W., Bello-Perez, L.A., & Tadini, C.C. (2009). Thermal properties and resistant starch content of green banana flour (Musa cavendishii) produced at different drying conditions. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 42, 1022-1025. https:// doi.org/10.1016 /j.lwt.2008.12.017

Trinh, K.T. & Glasgow, S. (2012). On the texture profile analysis test. Chemeca.

Wang, Y., Zhang, M., & Mujumdar, A.S. (2012). In fluence of green banana flour substitution for cassava starch on the nutrition, color, texture and sensory quality in two types of snacks. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 47, 175-182. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011 .12.011

Zandonadi, R.P., Botelho, R.B.A., Gandolfi, L., Ginani, J.S., Montenegro, F.M., & Pratesi, R. (2012). Green banana pasta: An alternative for gluten-free diets. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112, 1068- 1072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jand.2012.04.002

Zozimo, R.O.B., Ratanasut, K., Boonsrangsom, T., & Sujipuli, K. (2018). Assessment of genetic diversity among Thai banana cultivars (Musa spp.) based on RAPD and SRAP markers. International Journal of Biosciences, 12(4), 172-180.